Understanding scientific reasoning

  • Filename: understanding-scientific-reasoning.
  • ISBN: 015506326X
  • Release Date: 2006
  • Number of pages: 320
  • Author: Ronald N. Giere
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Pub Co



UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING develops critical reasoning skills and guides students in the improvement of their scientific and technological literacy. The authors teach students how to understand and critically evaluate the scientific information they encounter in both textbooks and the popular media. With its focus on scientific pedagogy, UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING helps students learn how to examine scientific reports with a reasonable degree of sophistication. The book also explains how to reason through case studies using the same informal logic skills employed by scientists and to analyze a complex series of propositions and hypotheses using sound scientific reasoning.

Theory and Evidence

  • Filename: theory-and-evidence.
  • ISBN: 0262112094
  • Release Date: 1996
  • Number of pages: 298
  • Author: Barbara Koslowski
  • Publisher: MIT Press



In Theory and Evidence Barbara Koslowski, long acknowledged for her empirical work in the field of cognitive-developmental research, brings into sharp focus the ways in which the standard literature both distorts and under-estimates the reasoning abilities of ordinary people. She provides the basis of a new research program for a more complete characterization of scientific reasoning, problem solving, and causality. Koslowski boldly criticizes many of the currently classic studies and musters a compelling set of arguments, backed by an exhaustive set of experiments carried out during the last decade. Theory and Evidence describes research that looks at the beliefs that people hold about the type of evidence that counts in scientific reasoning and also examines how those beliefs change with age. The primary focus is on the strategies that underlie actual scientific practice. Two general sorts of research are reported - one on hypothesis testing and the other on hypothesis revision (how people deal with evidence that disconfirms a given explanation). Koslowski argues that when scientific reasoning is operationally defined so that correct performance consists of focusing on covariation and ignoring considerations of theory or mechanisms, then subjects are often treated as engaging in flawed reasoning when, in fact, their reasoning is scientifically legitimate. Neither relying on covariation alone nor relying on theory alone constitutes a formula for success.

The Limits of Scientific Reasoning

  • Filename: the-limits-of-scientific-reasoning.
  • ISBN: 0816613591
  • Release Date: 1984
  • Number of pages: 198
  • Author: David Faust
  • Publisher: U of Minnesota Press



The Limits of Scientific Reasoning was first published in 1984. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. The study of human judgment and its limitations is essential to an understanding of the processes involved in the acquisition of scientific knowledge. With that end in mind, David Faust has made the first comprehensive attempt to apply recent research on human judgment to the practice of science. Drawing upon the findings of cognitive psychology, Faust maintains that human judgment is far more limited than we have tended to believe and that all individuals - scientists included—have a surprisingly restricted capacity to interpret complex information. Faust's thesis implies that scientists do not perform reasoning tasks, such as theory evaluation, as well as we assume they do, and that there are many judgments the scientist is expected to perform but cannot because of restrictions in cognitive capacity. "This is a very well-written, timely, and important book. It documents and clarifies, in a very scholarly fashion, what sociologists and psychologists of science have been flirting with for several decades—namely, inherent limitations of scientific judgment," –Michael Mahoney, Pennsylvania State University David Faust is director of psychology at Rhode Island Hospital and a faculty member of the Brown University Medical School. He is co-author of Teaching Moral Reasoning: Theory and Practice.

Scientific Reasoning

  • Filename: scientific-reasoning.
  • ISBN: 9780812695786
  • Release Date: 2006
  • Number of pages: 327
  • Author: Colin Howson
  • Publisher: Open Court Publishing



Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach explains, in an accessible style, those elements of the probability calculus that are relevant to Bayesian methods, and argues that the probability calculus is best regarded as a species of logic.

Causality

  • Filename: causality.
  • ISBN: 9780521895606
  • Release Date: 2009-09-14
  • Number of pages: 464
  • Author: Judea Pearl
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press



Causality offers the first comprehensive coverage of causal analysis in many sciences, including recent advances using graphical methods. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections, statistical associations, actions and observations. The book will open the way for including causal analysis in the standard curriculum of statistics, artificial intelligence,...

Understanding Philosophy of Science

  • Filename: understanding-philosophy-of-science.
  • ISBN: 9780415221573
  • Release Date: 2002
  • Number of pages: 290
  • Author: James Ladyman
  • Publisher: Psychology Press



Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the philosophical questions that arise when we reflect on the nature of the scientific method and the knowledge it produces. He discusses whether fundamental philosophical questions about knowledge and reality might be answered by science, and considers in detail the debate between realists and antirealists about the extent of scientific knowledge. Along the way, central topics in philosophy of science, such as the demarcation of science from non-science, induction, confirmation and falsification, the relationship between theory and observation and relativism are all addressed. Important and complex current debates over underdetermination, inference to the best explaination and the implications of radical theory change are clarified and clearly explained for those new to the subject.

Building Foundations of Scientific Understanding

  • Filename: building-foundations-of-scientific-understanding.
  • ISBN: 1478738693
  • Release Date: 2014-09-24
  • Number of pages: 500
  • Author: Bernard J. Nebel
  • Publisher:



Building Foundations of Scientific Understanding (BFSU) - BFSU is for teachers, homeschoolers, and other educators to deliver a first-rate science education to K-8 students and older beginning-science learners. Vol. I (here) is for grades K-2 and older beginning-science learners. Volumes II and III are for grades 3-5, and 6-8, and older progressing science learners. BFSU provides both teaching methodologies and detailed lesson plans embracing and integrating all the major areas of science. BFSU lessons follow structured learning progressions that build knowledge and develop understanding in systematic incremental steps. BFSU lessons all center around hands-on experience and real-world observations. In turn, they draw students to exercise their minds in thinking and drawing rational conclusions from what they observe/experience. Therefore, in following BFSU, students will be guided toward conceptual understanding of crosscutting concepts and ideas of science, as well as factual knowledge, and they will develop mind skills of scientific thinking and logical reasoning in the process. Implementing BFSU requires no particular background in either science or teaching. Teachers/parents can learn along with their children and be excellent role models in doing so. Already widely used and acclaimed in its 1st edition form, this second edition of BFSU contains added elements that will make it more useful in bringing students to master the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

How We Reason

  • Filename: how-we-reason.
  • ISBN: 9780198569763
  • Release Date: 2006
  • Number of pages: 573
  • Author: Philip Nicholas Johnson-Laird
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA



Good reasoning can lead to success; bad reasoning can lead to catastrophe. Yet, it's not obvious how we reason, and why we make mistakes - so much of our mental life goes on outside our awareness. In recent years huge strides have been made into developing a scientific understanding of reasoning. This new book by one of the pioneers of the field, Philip Johnson-Laird, looks at the mental processes that underlie our reasoning. It provides the most accessible account yet of the science of reasoning. We can all reason from our childhood onwards - but how? 'How we reason' outlines a bold approach to understanding reasoning. According to this approach, we don't rely on the laws of logic or probability - we reason by thinking about what's possible, we reason by seeing what is common to the possibilities. As the book shows, this approach can answer many of the questions about how we reason, and what causes mistakes in our reasoning that can lead to disasters such as Chernobyl. Itshows why our irrational fears may become psychological illnesses, why terrorists develop 'crazy' ideologies, and how we can act in order to improve our reasoning. The book ends by looking at the role of reasoning in three extraordinary case histories: the Wright brothers' use of analogies in inventing their flyer, the cryptanalysts' deductions in breaking the German's Enigma code in World War II, and Dr. John Snow's inductive reasoning in discovering how cholera spread from one person to another. Accessible, stimulating, and controversial, How we Reason presents a bold new approach to understanding one of the most intriguing facets of being human.

The Outer Limits of Reason

  • Filename: the-outer-limits-of-reason.
  • ISBN: 0262019353
  • Release Date: 2013-08-23
  • Number of pages: 328
  • Author: Noson S. Yanofsky
  • Publisher: MIT Press



Many books explain what is known about the universe. This book investigates what cannot be known. Rather than exploring the amazing facts that science, mathematics, and reason have revealed to us, this work studies what science, mathematics, and reason tell us cannot be revealed. In The Outer Limits of Reason, Noson Yanofsky considers what cannot be predicted, described, or known, and what will never be understood. He discusses the limitations of computers, physics, logic, and our own thought processes.Yanofsky describes simple tasks that would take computers trillions of centuries to complete and other problems that computers can never solve; perfectly formed English sentences that make no sense; different levels of infinity; the bizarre world of the quantum; the relevance of relativity theory; the causes of chaos theory; math problems that cannot be solved by normal means; and statements that are true but cannot be proven. He explains the limitations of our intuitions about the world -- our ideas about space, time, and motion, and the complex relationship between the knower and the known.Moving from the concrete to the abstract, from problems of everyday language to straightforward philosophical questions to the formalities of physics and mathematics, Yanofsky demonstrates a myriad of unsolvable problems and paradoxes. Exploring the various limitations of our knowledge, he shows that many of these limitations have a similar pattern and that by investigating these patterns, we can better understand the structure and limitations of reason itself. Yanofsky even attempts to look beyond the borders of reason to see what, if anything, is out there.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

  • Filename: the-structure-of-scientific-revolutions.
  • ISBN: 9780226458144
  • Release Date: 2012-04-18
  • Number of pages: 264
  • Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press



A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Philosophy of Science Very Short Introduction

  • Filename: philosophy-of-science-very-short-introduction.
  • ISBN: 9780198745587
  • Release Date: 2016-07-28
  • Number of pages: 160
  • Author: Samir Okasha
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press



How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully 'objective'? What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Induction and Deduction in the Sciences

  • Filename: induction-and-deduction-in-the-sciences.
  • ISBN: 9781402021961
  • Release Date: 2004-04-30
  • Number of pages: 359
  • Author: Friedrich Stadler
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media



The articles in this volume deal with the main inferential methods that can be applied to different kinds of experimental evidence. These contributions - accompanied with critical comments - by renowned scholars in the field of philosophy of science aim at removing the traditional opposition between inductivists and deductivists. They explore the different methods of explanation and justification in the sciences in different contexts and with different objectives. The volume contains contributions on methods of the sciences, especially on induction, deduction, abduction, laws, probability and explanation, ranging from logic, mathematics, natural to the social sciences. They present a highly topical pluralist re-evaluation of methodological and foundational procedures and reasoning, e.g. focusing in Bayesianism and Artificial Intelligence. They document the second international conference in Vienna on "Induction and Deduction in the Sciences" as part of the Scientific Network on "Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Philosophy of Science in Europe", funded by the European Science Foundation (ESF).

Embracing Diversity in the Learning Sciences

  • Filename: embracing-diversity-in-the-learning-sciences.
  • ISBN: 9781135605025
  • Release Date: 2012-10-12
  • Number of pages: 256
  • Author: Yasmin B. Kafai
  • Publisher: Routledge



More than a decade has passed since the First International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) was held at Northwestern University in 1991. The conference has now become an established place for researchers to gather. The 2004 meeting is the first under the official sponsorship of the International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS). The theme of this conference is "Embracing Diversity in the Learning Sciences." As a field, the learning sciences have always drawn from a diverse set of disciplines to study learning in an array of settings. Psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, and artificial intelligence have all contributed to the development of methodologies to study learning in schools, museums, and organizations. As the field grows, however, it increasingly recognizes the challenges to studying and changing learning environments across levels in complex social systems. This demands attention to new kinds of diversity in who, what, and how we study; and to the issues raised to develop coherent accounts of how learning occurs. Ranging from schools to families, and across all levels of formal schooling from pre-school through higher education, this ideology can be supported in a multitude of social contexts. The papers in these conference proceedings respond to the call.

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