Through the Wall Radar Imaging

  • Filename: through-the-wall-radar-imaging.
  • ISBN: 9781439814772
  • Release Date: 2016-04-19
  • Number of pages: 604
  • Author: Moeness G. Amin
  • Publisher: CRC Press



Through-the-wall radar imaging (TWRI) allows police, fire and rescue personnel, first responders, and defense forces to detect, identify, classify, and track the whereabouts of humans and moving objects. Electromagnetic waves are considered the most effective at achieving this objective, yet advances in this multi-faceted and multi-disciplinary technology require taking phenomenological issues into consideration and must be based on a solid understanding of the intricacies of EM wave interactions with interior and exterior objects and structures. Providing a broad overview of the myriad factors involved, namely size, weight, mobility, acquisition time, aperture distribution, power, bandwidth, standoff distance, and, most importantly, reliable performance and delivery of accurate information, Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging examines this technology from the algorithmic, modeling, experimentation, and system design perspectives. It begins with coverage of the electromagnetic properties of walls and building materials, and discusses techniques in the design of antenna elements and array configurations, beamforming concepts and issues, and the use of antenna array with collocated and distributed apertures. Detailed chapters discuss several suitable waveforms inverse scattering approaches and revolve around the relevance of physical-based model approaches in TWRI along with theoretical and experimental research in 3D building tomography using microwave remote sensing, high-frequency asymptotic modeling methods, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques, impulse radars, airborne radar imaging of multi-floor buildings strategies for target detection, and detection of concealed targets. The book concludes with a discussion of how the Doppler principle can be used to measure motion at a very fine level of detail. The book provides a deep understanding of the challenges of TWRI, stressing its multidisciplinary and phenomenological nature. The breadth and depth of topics covered presents a highly detailed treatment of this potentially life-saving technology.

Small and Short Range Radar Systems

  • Filename: small-and-short-range-radar-systems.
  • ISBN: 9781439866009
  • Release Date: 2014-04-04
  • Number of pages: 427
  • Author: Gregory L. Charvat
  • Publisher: CRC Press



Radar Expert, Esteemed Author Gregory L. Charvat on CNN and CBS Author Gregory L. Charvat appeared on CNN on March 17, 2014 to discuss whether Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 might have literally flown below the radar. He appeared again on CNN on March 20, 2014 to explain the basics of radar, and he explored the hope and limitations of the technology involved in the search for Flight 370 on CBS on March 22, 2014. Get His Book Now Coupling theory with reality, from derivation to implementation of actual radar systems, Small and Short-Range Radar Systems analyzes and then provides design procedures and working design examples of small and short-range radar systems. Discussing applications from automotive to through-wall imaging, autonomous vehicle, and beyond, the practical text supplies high-level descriptions, theoretical derrivations, back-of-envelope calculations, explanations of processing algorithms, and case studies for each type of small radar system covered, including continuous wave (CW), ultrawideband (UWB) impulse, linear frequency modulation (FM), linear rail synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and phased array. This essential reference: Explains how to design your own radar devices Demonstrates how to process data from small radar sensors Provides real-world, measured radar data to test algorithms before investing development time Complete with downloadable MATLAB® scripts and actual radar measurements, Small and Short-Range Radar Systems empowers you to rapidly develop small radar technology for your application.

Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar

  • Filename: compressive-sensing-for-urban-radar.
  • ISBN: 9781466597846
  • Release Date: 2014-08-07
  • Number of pages: 508
  • Author: Moeness Amin
  • Publisher: CRC Press



With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates. Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracking, and localization of indoor targets can be achieved using compressed observations that amount to a tiny percentage of the entire data volume. Capturing the latest and most important advances in the field, this state-of-the-art text: Covers both ground-based and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and uses different signal waveforms Demonstrates successful applications of compressive sensing for target detection and revealing building interiors Describes problems facing urban radar and highlights sparse reconstruction techniques applicable to urban environments Deals with both stationary and moving indoor targets in the presence of wall clutter and multipath exploitation Provides numerous supporting examples using real data and computational electromagnetic modeling Featuring 13 chapters written by leading researchers and experts, Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is a useful and authoritative reference for radar engineers and defense contractors, as well as a seminal work for graduate students and academia.

Ultrawideband Radar

  • Filename: ultrawideband-radar.
  • ISBN: 9781420089875
  • Release Date: 2016-04-19
  • Number of pages: 536
  • Author: James D. Taylor
  • Publisher: CRC Press



Providing a practical review of the latest technology in the field, Ultrawideband Radar Applications and Design presents cutting-edge advances in theory, design, and practical applications of ultrawideband (UWB) radar. This book features contributions from an international team of experts to help readers learn about a wide range of UWB topics, including: History of the technology American and European governmental regulations and key definitions Nonsinusoidal wave propagation theory Random signal radar Object detection by ground permittivity measurements Large-target backscattering effects Medical applications Large current radiator antenna design Materials-penetrating theory Radar signal processing Weak-signal detection methods Holographic and real time radar imaging This book’s contributors use practical information to illustrate the latest theoretical developments and demonstrate UWB radar principles through case studies. Radar system engineers will find ideas for precision electronic sensing systems for use in medical, security, industrial, construction, and geophysical applications, as well as those used in archeological, forensic and transportation operations.

Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar

  • Filename: compressive-sensing-for-urban-radar.
  • ISBN: 9781466597846
  • Release Date: 2014-08-07
  • Number of pages: 508
  • Author: Moeness Amin
  • Publisher: CRC Press



With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates. Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracking, and localization of indoor targets can be achieved using compressed observations that amount to a tiny percentage of the entire data volume. Capturing the latest and most important advances in the field, this state-of-the-art text: Covers both ground-based and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and uses different signal waveforms Demonstrates successful applications of compressive sensing for target detection and revealing building interiors Describes problems facing urban radar and highlights sparse reconstruction techniques applicable to urban environments Deals with both stationary and moving indoor targets in the presence of wall clutter and multipath exploitation Provides numerous supporting examples using real data and computational electromagnetic modeling Featuring 13 chapters written by leading researchers and experts, Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is a useful and authoritative reference for radar engineers and defense contractors, as well as a seminal work for graduate students and academia.

Digest

  • Filename: digest.
  • ISBN: 0780388836
  • Release Date: 2005
  • Number of pages: 4800
  • Author: DC) IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society. International Symposium (2005 : Washington
  • Publisher:



A Low power Radar Imaging System

  • Filename: a-low-power-radar-imaging-system.
  • ISBN: 9780549238362
  • Release Date: 2007
  • Number of pages: 626
  • Author: Gregory Louis Charvat
  • Publisher: Gregory Charvat



A near real-time radar-based imaging system is developed in this dissertation. This system uses the combination of a spatially diverse antenna array, a high sensitivity range-gated frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar system, and an airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging algorithm to produce near real-time high resolution imagery of what is behind a dielectric wall. This system is capable of detecting and providing accurate imagery of target scenes made up of objects as small as 6 inch tall metallic rods and cylinders behind a 4 inch thick dielectric slab. A study is conducted of through-dielectric slab imaging by the development of a 2D model of a dielectric slab and cylinder. The SAR imaging algorithm is developed and tested on this model for a variety of simulated imaging scenarios and the results are then used to develop an unusually high sensitivity range-gated FMCW radar architecture. An S-band rail SAR imaging system is developed using this architecture and used to image through two different dielectric slabs as well as free-space. All results are in agreement with the simulations. It is found that free-space target scenes could be imaged using low transmit power, as low as 5 picowatts. From this result it was decided to develop an X-band front end which mounts directly on to the S-band rail SAR so that objects as small as groups of pushpins and aircraft models in free-space could be imaged. These results are compared to previous X-band direct conversion FMCW rail SAR work. It was found that groups of pushpins and models could be imaged at transmit powers as low as 10 nanowatts. A spatially diverse S-band antenna array will be shown to be developed for use with the S-band radar; thereby providing the ability for near real-time SAR imaging of objects behind dielectric slabs with the same performance characteristics of the S-band rail SAR. The research presented in this dissertation will show that near real-time radar imaging through lossy-dielectric slabs is accomplished when using a highly sensitive radar system located at a stand-off range from the slab using a free-space SAR imaging algorithm.

Ultra Wideband Short Pulse Electromagnetics 7

  • Filename: ultra-wideband-short-pulse-electromagnetics-7.
  • ISBN: 038737731X
  • Release Date: 2010-05-30
  • Number of pages: 866
  • Author: Frank Sabath
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media



This book presents selected contributions of the Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7 Conference, including electromagnetic theory, scattering, Ultrawideband (UWB) antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar, UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-resolution techniques.

Tuxedo Park

  • Filename: tuxedo-park.
  • ISBN: 9781476767291
  • Release Date: 2013-10-15
  • Number of pages: 352
  • Author: Jennet Conant
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster



The untold story of an eccentric Wall Street tycoon and the circle of scientific geniuses he assembled before World War II to develop the science for radar and the atomic bomb. Together they changed the course of history. Legendary financier, philanthropist, and society figure Alfred Lee Loomis gathered the most visionary scientific minds of the twentieth century—Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Niels Bohr, Enrico Fermi, and others—at his state-of-the-art laboratory in Tuxedo Park, New York, in the late 1930s. He established a top-secret defense laboratory at MIT and personally bankrolled pioneering research into new, high-powered radar detection systems that helped defeat the German Air Force and U-boats. With Ernest Lawrence, the Nobel Prize–winning physicist, he pushed Franklin Delano Roosevelt to fund research in nuclear fission, which led to the development of the atomic bomb. Jennet Conant, the granddaughter of James Bryant Conant, one of the leading scientific advisers of World War II, enjoyed unprecedented access to Loomis’ papers, as well as to people intimately involved in his life and work. She pierces through Loomis’ obsessive secrecy and illuminates his role in assuring the Allied victory.

Advances in Surface Penetrating Technologies for Imaging Detection and Classification

  • Filename: advances-in-surface-penetrating-technologies-for-imaging-detection-and-classification.
  • ISBN: UOM:39015068782518
  • Release Date: 2007
  • Number of pages: 169
  • Author: Jay A. Marble
  • Publisher:



Surface penetration for the purpose of detecting objects of interest is a field of importance in both military and civilian applications. This work touches on the entire scope of the problem, including the detection and classification of objects and the process of forming an image. Military applications such as See-Through-Wall radar and landmine detection dominate the specific applications explored. Initially, the problem of decreasing signal-to-noise ratio is addressed by applying non-statistical methods to signal enhancement. Metal detectors and ground penetrating radar, the standard sensors for landmine detection, are given the focus. Next, statistical methods are explored for both object detection and classification. A Gaussian mixture is used to model the response of multiple objects of interest to the standard sensors. Two sensor scheduling techniques are then studied within the context of confirmation. The first applies an information gain metric called the Renyi Divergence to schedule a single sensor out of a toolset of sensors. (Three appendices discuss the physics of potential sensors that could make up the toolset.) The second uses a learning approach to determine a policy for applying more than one confirmation sensor. The policy dictates when to declare an object class and when to deploy another sensor. The resulting policy produces the maximum probability of correct classification with the minimum number of sensor dwells. Imaging begins with backpropagation synthetic aperture radar imaging and progresses to an efficient implementation of wavenumber migration. The use of a sparse prior for image reconstruction is introduced in an iterative method that transforms the data back and forth between image and observation domains using Landweber iteration. Soft-thresholding is used as the mechanism for applying the sparse prior. Examples are shown in 2D and 3D. The final contribution is an adaptive imaging technique called the Iterative Redeployment of Illumination and Sensing. This algorithm utilizes the scene itself to determine the best locations to acquire further observations. An E&M simulator dubbed a virtual transmitter is used in conjunction with information gain to direct the imaging device to the next location. The final result is an image that approximates a large synthetic aperture from multiple observations with a much smaller aperture device.

Iterative Redeployment of Illumination and Sensing IRIS Application to STW SAR Imaging

  • Filename: iterative-redeployment-of-illumination-and-sensing-iris-application-to-stw-sar-imaging.
  • ISBN: OCLC:318686990
  • Release Date: 2006
  • Number of pages: 8
  • Author:
  • Publisher:



A new technique which we call Iterative Redeployment of Illumination and Sensing (IRIS) is introduced and applied to See-Through-the-Wall radar imaging. IRIS is applicable to adaptive sensing scenarios where the medium is illuminated and measured multiple times using different illuminator/sensor configurations, e.g., position, bandwidth, or polarization. These configurations are adaptively selected to minimize uncertainty in the image reconstruction. The IRIS algorithm has the following features: (1) use of a sparse Bayesian image model that captures the free-space dominated propagation characteristics of interiors of man-made structures such as caves and residences; (2) iterative reconstruction of both an image and an image confidence map from the posterior likelihood in the form of a thresholded Landweber recursion, (3) use of the Bayesian model to predict the best redeployment configuration of the illuminator platform given the current image and confidence map. For the STW application we approximate the forward operator by a matrix formulation of wavenumber migration. A simulated STW application is provided that illustrates the IRIS algorithm.

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