Science for the Empire

  • Filename: science-for-the-empire.
  • ISBN: 9780804769846
  • Release Date: 2008-11-12
  • Number of pages: 288
  • Author: Hiromi Mizuno
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press

This fascinating study examines the discourse of science in Japan from the 1920s to the 1940s in relation to nationalism and imperialism. How did Japan, with Shinto creation mythology at the absolute core of its national identity, come to promote the advancement of science and technology? Using what logic did wartime Japanese embrace both the rationality that denied and the nationalism that promoted this mythology? Focusing on three groups of science promoters—technocrats, Marxists, and popular science proponents—this work demonstrates how each group made sense of apparent contradictions by articulating its politics through different definitions of science and visions of a scientific Japan. The contested, complex political endeavor of talking about and promoting science produced what the author calls "scientific nationalism," a powerful current of nationalism that has been overlooked by scholars of Japan, nationalism, and modernity.

Science Technology and Medicine in the Modern Japanese Empire

  • Filename: science-technology-and-medicine-in-the-modern-japanese-empire.
  • ISBN: 9781317444367
  • Release Date: 2016-03-22
  • Number of pages: 302
  • Author: David G. Wittner
  • Publisher: Routledge

Science, technology, and medicine all contributed to the emerging modern Japanese empire and conditioned key elements of post-war development. As the only emerging non-Western country that was a colonial power in its own right, Japan utilized these fields not only to define itself as racially different from other Asian countries and thus justify its imperialist activities, but also to position itself within the civilized and enlightened world with the advantages of modern science, technologies, and medicine. This book explores the ways in which scientists, engineers and physicians worked directly and indirectly to support the creation of a new Japanese empire, focussing on the eve of World War I and linking their efforts to later post-war developments. By claiming status as a modern, internationally-engaged country, the Japanese government was faced with having to control pathogens that might otherwise not have threatened the nation. Through the use of traditional and innovative techniques, this volume shows how the government was able to fulfil the state’s responsibility to protect society to varying degrees. The contributors push the field of the history of science, technology and medicine in Japan in new directions, raising questions about the definitions of diseases, the false starts in advancing knowledge, and highlighting the very human nature of fields which, on the surface, seem to non-specialists to be highly rational. Challenging older interpretative tendencies, this book highlights the vigour of the field and the potential for future development. Therefore, it will be of huge interest to students and scholars of Japanese history, Asian history, the history of science and technology and the history of medicine.

The Empire of Chance

  • Filename: the-empire-of-chance.
  • ISBN: 052139838X
  • Release Date: 1990-10-26
  • Number of pages: 340
  • Author: Gerd Gigerenzer
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

This book tells how quantitative ideas of chance have transformed the natural and social sciences as well as everyday life over the past three centuries. A continuous narrative connects the earliest application of probability and statistics in gambling and insurance to the most recent forays into law, medicine, polling, and baseball. Separate chapters explore the theoretical and methodological impact on biology, physics, and psychology. In contrast to the literature on the mathematical development of probability and statistics, this book centers on how these technical innovations recreated our conceptions of nature, mind, and society.

The Emperor of All Maladies

  • Filename: the-emperor-of-all-maladies.
  • ISBN: 9781439170915
  • Release Date: 2011-08-09
  • Number of pages: 573
  • Author: Siddhartha Mukherjee
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster

An assessment of cancer addresses both the courageous battles against the disease and the misperceptions and hubris that have compromised modern understandings, providing coverage of such topics as ancient-world surgeries and the development of present-day treatments. Reprint. Best-selling winner of the Pulitzer Prize. Includes reading-group guide.

Imperial Ecology

  • Filename: imperial-ecology.
  • ISBN: 9780674020221
  • Release Date: 2009-06-30
  • Number of pages: 352
  • Author: Peder ANKER
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press

From 1895 to the founding of the United Nations in 1945, the promising new science of ecology flourished in the British Empire. Peder Anker asks why ecology expanded so rapidly and how a handful of influential scientists and politicians established a tripartite ecology of nature, knowledge, and society. Patrons in the northern and southern extremes of the Empire, he argues, urgently needed tools for understanding environmental history as well as human relations to nature and society in order to set policies for the management of natural resources and to effect social control of natives and white settlement. Holists such as Jan Christian Smuts and mechanists such as Arthur George Tansley vied for the right to control and carry out ecological research throughout the British Empire and to lay a foundation of economic and social policy that extended from Spitsbergen to Cape Town. The enlargement of the field from botany to human ecology required a broader methodological base, and ecologists drew especially on psychology and economy. They incorporated those methodologies and created a new ecological order for environmental, economic, and social management of the Empire. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments Introduction From Social Psychology to Imperial Ecology General Smuts's Politics of Holism and Patronage of Ecology The Oxford School of Imperial Ecology Holism and the Ecosystem Controversy The Politics of Holism, Ecology, and Human Rights Planning a New Human Ecology Conclusion: A World without History An Ecology of Ecologists Notes Sources Index Reviews of this book: Peder Anker's Imperial Ecology is the unexpected story of how late-imperial British ecologists took their arcane studies of marine life off Spitzbergen or the game of southern Africa and brought them to bear on very different areas of interest. These ecologists fashioned from their studies a view of human ecology broad enough, in this telling, to embrace cycles of sexual activity in Japanese brothels, famine in central Asia, the building blocks for national economic planning and the cultural underpinnings of Nazism. An eye-opener. --Fred Pearce, New Scientist Reviews of this book: Few books are truly original; however, Anker...puts an original perspective on the history of ecology, linking two major schools of the imperial aspirations of Great Britain. The UK provided patronage (grants) to support ecologists who in turn provided important concepts strengthening Britain's imperial grip by enhancing resource management and incorporating human ecology into colonial ecosystems...This thought-provoking book provides many new insights into the history of a discipline. It will be news to most ecologists, whose knowledge of their own history is often sketchy at best. --J. Burger, Choice Anker has written a ruthlessly honest political and cultural history of ecology, setting it firmly in the world of nineteenth-century colonialism. Illusions vanish here: turn of the century ecology did not stand for a pure pacifism or an eden of natural harmony. Instead, we find that both the liberal mechanism of British ecologist Arthur George Tansley and the holistic ecology of South African statesman Jan Christian Smuts were both firmly built upon nationalism--and a nationalism that mattered a great deal, militarily, racially, and socially. This is important work and a riveting read. --Peter Galison, Harvard University

The Emperor s New Mind

  • Filename: the-emperor-s-new-mind.
  • ISBN: 0192861980
  • Release Date: 1999-03-04
  • Number of pages: 602
  • Author: Roger Penrose
  • Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

Winner of the Wolf Prize for his contribution to our understanding of the universe, Penrose takes on the question of whether artificial intelligence will ever approach the intricacy of the human mind. 144 illustrations.

Science in the Service of Empire

  • Filename: science-in-the-service-of-empire.
  • ISBN: 0521550696
  • Release Date: 1998-06-08
  • Number of pages: 247
  • Author: John Gascoigne (Ph. D.)
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

This book examines Sir Joseph Banks' role in promoting "imperial science," in the context of the consolidation of the British State during a time of extraordinary upheaval. Under pressure from the American, French and Industrial revolutions, the State became interested in the possible uses of science for economic and strategic gain. Banks became its principal adviser in scientific matters, and Gascoigne shows how he used personal networks and patronage to integrate scientific concerns into the complex machinery of government.

The Savant and the State

  • Filename: the-savant-and-the-state.
  • ISBN: 9781421405223
  • Release Date: 2012-07-03
  • Number of pages: 394
  • Author: Robert Fox
  • Publisher: JHU Press

There has been a tendency to view science in nineteenth-century France as the exclusive territory of the nation’s leading academic centers and the powerful Paris-based administrators who controlled them. Ministries and the great savants and institutions of the capital seem to have defined the field, while historians have ignored or glossed over traditions on the periphery of science. In The Savant and the State, Robert Fox charts new historiographical territory by synthesizing the practices and thought of state-sanctioned scientists and those of independent communities of savants and commentators with very different political, religious, and cultural priorities. Fox provides a comprehensive history of the public face of French science from the Bourbon Restoration to the outbreak of the Great War. Following the Enlightenment, many different interests competed to define the role of science and technology in French society. Political and religious conservatives tended to blame the scientific community for upsetting traditional values and, implicitly, delivering France into the hands of revolutionary extremists and Napoleonic bureaucrats. Scientists, for their part, embraced the belief that observation and experimentation offered the surest way to the knowledge and wisdom on which the welfare of society depended. This debate, Fox argues, became a contest for the hearts and minds of the French citizenry.

Becoming a Physician

  • Filename: becoming-a-physician.
  • ISBN: 0801864828
  • Release Date: 2000-07-28
  • Number of pages: 412
  • Author: Thomas Neville Bonner
  • Publisher: JHU Press

"A lucid map of the changes in pedagogy over two hundred years in four major centres of learning in the western world." -- English Historical Review

The Science of Empire

  • Filename: the-science-of-empire.
  • ISBN: 0791429202
  • Release Date: 1996-05-16
  • Number of pages: 298
  • Author: Zaheer Baber
  • Publisher: SUNY Press

Investigates the complex social processes involved in the introduction and institutionalization of Western science in colonial India.

The Empire Strikes Out

  • Filename: the-empire-strikes-out.
  • ISBN: 0879722584
  • Release Date: 1984
  • Number of pages: 335
  • Author: William B. Fischer
  • Publisher: Popular Press

German science fiction offers a most interesting contribution to the history and criticism of science fiction. William B. Fischer examines two writers, Kurd Lasswitz and Hans Dominik. He concludes that German science fiction is in distinct contrast to the “normative” tradition of modern Anglo-American science fiction and to many other literary traditions as well. His book demonstrates vividly the social relevance and enduring cultural vitality of science fiction.

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