Relativism and Human Rights

  • Filename: relativism-and-human-rights.
  • ISBN: 9781402099861
  • Release Date: 2009-04-15
  • Number of pages: 170
  • Author: Claudio Corradetti
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

When he nished writing, he raised his eyes and looked at me. From that day I have thought about Doktor Pannwitz many times and in many ways. I have asked myself how he really functioned as a man; how he lled his time, outside of the Polymerization and the Indo- Germanic conscience; above all when I was once more a free man, I wanted to meet him again, not from a spirit of revenge, but merely from a personal curiosity about the human soul. Because that look was not one between two men; and if I had known how completely to explain the nature of that look, which came as if across the glass window of an aquarium between two beings who live in different worlds, I would also have explained the essence of the great insanity of the third Germany. PRIMO LEVI [If this is a man, pp. 111–112, in, If this is a man and The truce, trans. S. Woolf, Abacus, London, 1987] If all propositions, even the contingent ones, are resolved into identical propositions, are they not all necessary? My answer is: certainly not. For even if it is certain that what is more perfect is what will exist, the less perfect is nevertheless still possible. In propositions of fact, existence is involved. LEIBNIZ [Samtlic ̈ he schriften und briefe vol VI pt 4 Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1449A VI 4] We live in a rule-constrained world.

Human Rights in Iran

  • Filename: human-rights-in-iran.
  • ISBN: 9780812221398
  • Release Date: 2011-02-17
  • Number of pages: 440
  • Author: Reza Afshari
  • Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

Selected by Choice magazine as an Outstanding Academic Title Are the principles set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights truly universal? Or, as some have argued, are they derived exclusively from Western philosophic traditions and therefore irrelevant to many non-Western cultures? Should a state's claims to indigenous traditions, and not international covenants, determine the scope of rights granted to its citizens? In his strong defense of the Declaration, Reza Afshari contends that the moral vision embodied in this and other agreements is a proper response to the abuses of the modern state. Asserting that the most serious violations of human rights by state rulers are motivated by political and economic factors rather than the purported concern for cultural authenticity, Afshari examines one particular state that has claimed cultural exception to the universality of human rights, the Islamic Republic of Iran. In his revealing case study, Afshari investigates how Islamic culture and Iranian politics since the fall of the Shah have affected human rights policy in that state. He exposes the human rights violations committed by ruling clerics in Iran since the Revolution, showing that Iran has behaved remarkably like other authoritarian governments in its human rights abuses. For more than two decades, Iran has systematically jailed, tortured, and executed dissidents without due process of law and assassinated political opponents outside state borders. Furthermore, like other oppressive states, Iran has regularly denied and countered the charges made by United Nations human rights monitors, defending its acts as authentic cultural practices. Throughout his study, Afshari addresses Iran's claims of cultural relativism, a controversial thesis in the intense ongoing debate over the universality of human rights. In prison memoirs he uncovers the actual human rights abuses committed by the Islamic Republic and the sociopolitical conditions that cause or permit them. Finally, Afshari turns to little-read UN reports that reveal that the dynamics of power between UN human rights monitors and Iranian leaders have proven ineffective at enforcing human rights policy in Iran. Critically analyzing the state's responses, Afshari shows that the Islamic Republic, like other oppressive states, has regularly denied and countered the charges made by UN human rights monitors, and when denials were patently implausible, it defended its acts as authentic cultural practices. This defense is equally unconvincing, since it lacked domestic cultural consensus.

International Human Rights

  • Filename: international-human-rights.
  • ISBN: 9781610271592
  • Release Date: 2013-05-01
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Alison Dundes Renteln
  • Publisher: Quid Pro Books

International Human Rights is a classic socio-legal study of the incompatibility and possible reconciliation of competing views of culture relativism and absolute fundamental human rights. It features prodigious research and insight that is much cited by academics and human rights lawyers and activists over two decades. Quality ebook edition features active Contents, linked notes, and proper presentation of text and charts. Are human rights universal? Universalists and cultural relativists have long been debating this question. In INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS, Alison Dundes Renteln reconciles the two positions and argues that, within the vast array of cultural practices and values, it is possible to create structural equivalents to rights in all societies. She poses that empirical cross-cultural research can reveal universal human rights standards, then demonstrates it through an analysis of the concept of measured retribution. INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS provides an unusual combination of abstract theory and empirical evidence. It will interest scholars and students in political science, sociology, anthropology, peace studies, cross-cultural research, and philosophy, as well as human rights activists.

The Idea of Human Rights

  • Filename: the-idea-of-human-rights.
  • ISBN: 0195138287
  • Release Date: 2000
  • Number of pages: 176
  • Author: Michael J. Perry
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

Inspired by a 1988 trip to El Salvador, Michael J. Perry's new book is a personal and scholarly exploration of the idea of human rights. Perry is one of our nation's leading authorities on the relation of morality, including religious morality, to politics and law. He seeks, in this book, to disentangle the complex idea of human rights by way of four probing and interrelated essays. * The initial essay, which is animated by Perry's skepticism about the capacity of any secular morality to offer a coherent account of the idea of human rights, suggests that the first part of the idea of human rights--the premise that every human being is "sacred" or "inviolable"--is inescapably religious. * Responding to recent criticism of "rights talk", Perry explicates, in his second essay, the meaning and value of talk about human rights. * In his third essay, Perry asks a fundamental question about human rights: Are they universal? In addressing this question, he disaggregates and criticizes several different varieties of "moral relativism" and then considers the implications of these different relativist positions for claims about human rights. * Perry turns to another fundamental question about human rights in his final essay: Are they absolute? He concludes that even if no human rights, understood as moral rights, are absolute or unconditional, some human rights, understood as international legal rights, are--and indeed, should be--absolute. In the introduction, Perry writes: "Of all the influential--indeed, formative--moral ideas to take center stage in the twentieth century, like democracy and socialism, the idea of human rights (which, again, in one form or another, is an old idea) is, for many, the most difficult. It is the most difficult in the sense that it is, for many, the hardest of the great moral ideas to integrate, the hardest to square, with the reigning intellectual assumptions of the age, especially what Bernard Williams has called 'Nietzsche's thought': 'There is not only no God, but no metaphysical order of any kind....' For those who accept 'Nietzsche's thought', can the idea of human rights possibly be more than a kind of aesthetic preference? In a culture in which it was widely believed that there is no God or metaphysical order of any kind, on what basis, if any, could the idea of human rights long survive?" The Idea of Human Rights: Four Inquiries will appeal to students of many disciplines, including (but not limited to) law, philosophy, religion, and politics.

Human Rights and Conflict

  • Filename: human-rights-and-conflict.
  • ISBN: 1929223773
  • Release Date: 2006-01
  • Number of pages: 549
  • Author: Julie Mertus
  • Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

'Human Rights and Conflict' is divided into three parts, each capturing the role played by human rights at a different stage in the conflict cycle.

Universal Human Rights

  • Filename: universal-human-rights.
  • ISBN: 0742548619
  • Release Date: 2005-01-01
  • Number of pages: 238
  • Author: David A. Reidy
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

Universal Human Rights brings new clarity to the important and highly contested concept of universal human rights. This collection of essays explores the foundations of universal human rights in four sections devoted to their nature, application, enforcement, and limits, concluding that shared rights help to constitute a universal human community, which supports local customs and separate state sovereignty. The eleven contributors to this volume demonstrate from their very different perspectives how human rights can help to bring moral order to an otherwise divided world. Visit our website for sample chapters!

Human Rights in the World Community

  • Filename: human-rights-in-the-world-community.
  • ISBN: 0812219481
  • Release Date: 2006-09-06
  • Number of pages: 543
  • Author: Richard Pierre Claude
  • Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

Specifically designed for educational use by international relations, law, and political and social science classes, Human Rights in the World Community treats the full range of human rights issues, including implementation problems and processes involving international, national, and nongovernmental action. This new edition reflects the global, large-scale change that has occurred in the field of human rights, and features an extensive bibliography and filmography.

International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law

  • Filename: international-human-rights-and-humanitarian-law.
  • ISBN: 1139448935
  • Release Date: 2006-01-16
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Francisco Forrest Martin
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law: Treaties, Cases, and Analysis introduces the reader to the international legal instruments and case law governing the substantive and procedural dimensions of international human rights and humanitarian law, including economic, social, and cultural rights. The book, which was originally published in 2006, also discusses the history and organisational structure of human rights and humanitarian law enforcement mechanisms. A chapter is devoted a chapter to the issues surrounding the incorporation of international law into U.S. law, including principles of constitutional and statutory interpretation, conflict rules, and the self-execution doctrine. Questions and comments sections provide critical analyses of issues raised in the materials. The last chapter addresses theoretical issues facing contemporary international human rights and humanitarian law and its enforcement.

Human Rights and Human Norms

  • Filename: human-rights-and-human-norms.
  • ISBN: 9783640415458
  • Release Date: 2009-09-02
  • Number of pages: 7
  • Author: Mohamed El Nazer
  • Publisher: GRIN Verlag

Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Public International Law and Human Rights, American University of Sharjah, language: English, abstract: After the Second World War, a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) evolved as an act for freedom and equality. The UDHR was held by many politicians and representatives from many countries, with different cultures and religions, including the “United States, United Kingdom, Iran, China, Egypt, and France”, to intersect one main matter. This cosmo-political act is to insure that Human and civil Rights are applicable to all nations and regions all over the globe. However in 1981, Iranian representative in the United Nations Said Rajaie-Khorassani claimed that the declaration of human rights was based on Jewish-Christian beliefs and cultures, and could not be tolerated by the Islamic people, and their traditions (Littman, 2003). Countries like Iran claim that human rights are established fundamentally on a Western moral. Certainly every nation has its own laws and regulations. Besides every region has its own traditions and values. But when it comes to human rights, it is a universal privilege that humanity has to possess. The universal declaration of human rights is made to structure all the inhumane and barbaric legacies made and done by state leaders and mainly dictators. Cultural relativists claim that this universality is considered cultural imperialism, dominating the world culture and ruining all kinds of ethnic norms and traditions.

Human Rights

  • Filename: human-rights.
  • ISBN: 1555879799
  • Release Date: 2000-01-01
  • Number of pages: 259
  • Author: Adamantia Pollis
  • Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

This collection reflects two decades of developments in human rights scholarship, revisiting the debate between universalists and cultural relativists and also engaging new notions of third generation rights.

International Human Rights in Context

  • Filename: international-human-rights-in-context.
  • ISBN: 9780199279425
  • Release Date: 2008
  • Number of pages: 1492
  • Author: Henry J. Steiner
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

The third edition of International Human Rights in Context continues to bring sophisticated and thought-provoking analysis to the study of human rights within its wider social and cultural context. This widely acclaimed interdisciplinary coursebook presents a diverse range of carefully edited primary and secondary materials alongside extensive text, editorial commentary, and study questions. Within its conceptual framework, the book thoroughly covers the major topics of internationalhuman rights: the basic characteristics of international law; evolution of the human rights movement movement; civil, political, economic and social rights; the humanitarian laws of war; globalization; self-determination; women's rights; universalism and cultural relativisim; intergovernmental and nongovernmental institutions; implementation and enforcement; internal application of human rights norms; and the spread of constitutionalism. The third edition has been considerably revised and restructured to incoroprate new themes and topics including: human rights in relation to terrorism amd national security; responsibility of nonstate actors for human rights violations; recent substantial changes in sources and processes of international law; achieved and potential reforrm within UN human rights institution; theories about international organizations and their influence on state behavior. Its scope, challenging enquiries, and clarity make it the ideal companion for human rightsstudents, scholars, advocates and practitioners alike. Online Resource Centre The third edition will be accompanied by a new online resource centre which will house the Annex of Documents, allowing them to be updated between editions.

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