Iranian Intellectuals

  • Filename: iranian-intellectuals.
  • ISBN: 9781317969358
  • Release Date: 2013-10-18
  • Number of pages: 7
  • Author: Lloyd Ridgeon
  • Publisher: Routledge

Previously published as a special issue of British Journal of Middle East Studies, this volume focuses on leading figures within Iran between 1997-2007 and their visions and works that are related to Iranian society. A cross section of opinion is investigated, including the clerical (‘Ali Khameneh’i, Muhammad Khatami and Mohsen Kadivar), the dissident (Mohsen Makhmalbaf), and the poetic (Qaysar Aminpour) and cinematic. The past decade has been a traumatic one in Iran, and the essays in this volume testify to the vibrancy of the responses from Iranian thinkers. It may be a surprise to some observers that in some senses, ‘Ali Khameneh’i may be considered a ‘liberal’ whereas Muhammad Khatami’s own credentials as an advocate of rapprochement with the West needs to be qualified. Responses to Western culture continue to remain centre-stage, and this is also nowhere more apparent than in the complex relationship between the directors of Iranian films (perhaps Iran’s most celebrated export these days) and their audiences, both Iranian and Western. Despite some viewing Iran as a pariah state, it remains firmly connected to the West and to modern technology, typified in the practice of blogging that is enjoyed by so many Iranians, which has provided a new space for expression and thinking.

The Iranian Constitutional Revolution and the Clerical Leadership of Khurasani

  • Filename: the-iranian-constitutional-revolution-and-the-clerical-leadership-of-khurasani.
  • ISBN: 9780815653110
  • Release Date: 2015-03-13
  • Number of pages: 329
  • Author: Mateo Mohammad Farzaneh
  • Publisher: Syracuse University Press

The Iranian Constitutional Revolution was the twentieth century’s first such political movement in the Middle East. It represented a landmark in Iranian history because of the unlikely support it received from Shi‘ite clerics who historically viewed Western concepts with suspicion, some claiming constitutionalism to be anti-Islamic. Leading the support was Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, the renowned Shi‘ite jurist who conceived of a supporting role for the clergy in a modern Iranian political system. Drawing on extensive analysis of religious texts, fatwas, and articles written by Khurasani an other pro- and anti-constitutionalists, Farzaneh provides a comprehensive and illuminating interpretation of Khurasani’s religious pragmatism. Despite some opposition from his peers, Khurasani used a form of jurisprudential reasoning when creating shari‘a that was based on human intellect to justify his support of not only the Iranian parliament but also the political powers of clerics. He had a reputation across the Shi‘ite community as a masterful religious scholar, a skillful teacher, and a committed humanitarian who heeded the people’s socioeconomic and political grievances and took action to address them. Khurasani’s push for progressive reforms helped to inaugurate a new era of clerical involvement in constitutionalism in the Middle East.

Morals and Mysticism in Persian Sufism

  • Filename: morals-and-mysticism-in-persian-sufism.
  • ISBN: 9781136970580
  • Release Date: 2010-06-10
  • Number of pages: 240
  • Author: Lloyd Ridgeon
  • Publisher: Routledge

Sufism is often understood to be the mystical dimension of Islam, and many works have focused on the nature of "mystical experiences" and the relationship between man and God. Yet Sufism was a human response to a wide range of contexts and circumstances; the fact that Sufis lived in society and interacted with the community necessitating guidance on how to behave. This book examines the development of Persian Sufism, showing it to be a practical philosophy of the everyday rather than just a metaphysical phenomena. The author explores the ethic of futuwwat (or jawanmardi), an Iranian code of honour that emphasised loyalty, humility, generosity and bravery. Although inevitably some Sufis spiritualised this code of honour and applied it to their own relationship with God, the ethic continued to permeate Sufi behaviour on a more mundane level, typified by the strong links between Sufis and certain trades. Drawing on field research in Iran, as well as detailed analysis of both Arabic and Persian texts and new materials that have been published in Iran in recent years, this is the first book in English to provide a history of Persian Sufi-futuwwat, As such, this book is an important contribution to the study of Persian Sufism, and to the fields of Islam, history and religion.

Iranian Intellectuals and the West

  • Filename: iranian-intellectuals-and-the-west.
  • ISBN: 0815604335
  • Release Date: 1996
  • Number of pages: 256
  • Author: Mehrzad Boroujerdi
  • Publisher: Syracuse University Press

Regarding the constitution of other-ness, this work examines the pedagogical, political and discursive practice of post-World war II Iranian intellectuals. It shows how clerics, secular and lay religious intellectuals confronted a dual sense of other-ness which resulted in dissent and nativism.

Secular Apparition The Resurgence of Liberal democratic Intellectual Discourse in Post revolutionary Iran

  • Filename: secular-apparition-the-resurgence-of-liberal-democratic-intellectual-discourse-in-post-revolutionary-iran.
  • ISBN: 9780549506089
  • Release Date: 2007
  • Number of pages: 294
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

The important contribution of secular intellectuals in post-revolutionary Iran to the formation of a post-Islamist political trend that emphasizes Iranian nationalism and liberal democratic values has not been evaluated. In post-revolutionary Iran, secular intellectual have criticized the ideological foundation of the state by consistently challenging the intellectual justification of the Islamic state. They have persistently refuted the claim that the "Islamic Government" and its ideological foundation "Velayat-e Faqih" constitute the only legitimate source of power in Islamic Iran. The political philosophers, Seyed Javad Tabatabai and Ramin Jahanbegloo, have contributed significantly to the theoretical debates on the nature of political thought in Iran. Examination of their works reveals the importance of their contribution to the rise of a new intellectual discourse distinguished by its emphasis on modernity and its attendant political ideologies. Tabatabai has persuasively argued that the supremacy of despotism and the rigidity of Shari'a minded jurists has undermined philosophical speculations that may have encouraged political thought concerned with temporal issues. He rejects the earlier intellectuals' anti-modernism masquerading as anti-westernism and promotes a philosophical appreciation of the promise of modernity for greater freedom. Ramin Jahanbegloo has introduced western philosophers through translations, writings, and lectures and has found a highly receptive audience among young educated Iranians. He declares that time for philosophical ideas has come and philosophy represents a window to an open society and to the idea of democracy. These two influential secular intellectuals have contributed greatly to the resurgence of liberal democratic ideas in Iran.


  • Filename: orientalism.
  • ISBN: 0143027980
  • Release Date: 2006
  • Number of pages: 416
  • Author: Edward W. Said
  • Publisher: Penguin Books India

Now reissued with a substantial new afterword, this highly acclaimed overview of Western attitudes towards the East has become one of the canonical texts of cultural studies. Very excitingâ¦his case is not merely persuasive, but conclusive. John Leonard in The New York Times His most important book, Orientalism established a new benchmark for discussion of the West's skewed view of the Arab and Islamic world.Simon Louvish in the New Statesman & Society âEdward Said speaks for interdisciplinarity as well as for monumental erudition¦The breadth of reading [is] astonishing. Fred Inglis in The Times Higher Education Supplement A stimulating, elegant yet pugnacious essay.Observer Exciting¦for anyone interested in the history and power of ideas.J.H. Plumb in The New York Times Book Review Beautifully patterned and passionately argued. Nicholas Richardson in the New Statesman & Society

Making Islam Democratic

  • Filename: making-islam-democratic.
  • ISBN: 0804755957
  • Release Date: 2007
  • Number of pages: 291
  • Author: Asef Bayat
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press

This book looks anew at the vexing question of whether Islam is compatible with democracy, examining histories of Islamic politics and social movements in the Middle East since the 1970s.

The Rise of the Pasdaran

  • Filename: the-rise-of-the-pasdaran.
  • ISBN: 9780833046802
  • Release Date: 2008-12-31
  • Number of pages: 152
  • Author: Frederic Wehrey
  • Publisher: Rand Corporation

Both high import payments for petroleum motor fuels and concerns regarding emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are motivating interest in possible fuel substitutes. Petroleum products derived from conventional crude oil constitute more than 50 percent of end-use energy deliveries in the United States and more than 95 percent of all energy used in the U.S. transportation sector. Almost 60 percent of liquid fuels are imported. Emissions from the consumption of petroleum account for 44 percent of the nation?s CO2 emissions, with approximately 33 percent of national CO2 emissions resulting from transportation-fuel use. In this report, RAND researchers assess the potential future production levels, production costs, greenhouse gases, and other environmental implications of synthetic crude oil extracted from oil sands and fuels produced via coal liquefaction relative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. The findings indicate the potential cost-competitiveness of these alternative fuels and the potential trade-offs that their deployment requires between economic and environmental considerations.

The Arab State and Women s Rights

  • Filename: the-arab-state-and-women-s-rights.
  • ISBN: 9780415617734
  • Release Date: 2011
  • Number of pages: 236
  • Author: Elham Manea
  • Publisher: Routledge

This book explores the issue of gender rights for Arab women and in particular why they are often discriminated against in their private lives by the state. Addressing the question of why the modern Arab state has repeatedly turned away from any serious attempt to modernize the laws governing the family sphere, the author maintains that the Arab state functions according to a certain ' logic' and ' patterns' and that these have direct consequences on its gender policies, in both the public and private spheres. Suggesting...

City of Knowledge in Twentieth Century Iran

  • Filename: city-of-knowledge-in-twentieth-century-iran.
  • ISBN: 9781136627170
  • Release Date: 2012-03-12
  • Number of pages: 272
  • Author: Setrag Manoukian
  • Publisher: Routledge

This book presents a cultural history of modern Iran from the point of view of Shiraz, a city famous for its poetry and its traditions of scholarship. Exploring the relationship among history, poetry and politics, the book analyses how Shiraz came to be defined as the country’s cultural capital, and explains how Iranians have used the concept of culture as a way of thinking about themselves, their past and their relationship with the rest of the world. Weaving together a theoretical approach with extensive ethnographic research, the book suggests a model to integrate broad concerns with a nuanced analysis of Iran’s cultural traditions and practices. The author’s interdisciplinary approach sheds light on how contemporary Iranians relate to classical Persian poetry; on the relationship between expressive forms and the political imagination; and on the different ways teachers, professors, cultural managers, poets and scholars think and work. He describes how history and poetry are the two dominant modes to talk about the past, present and future of the town and demonstrates that the question of knowledge is crucial to an understanding of the political and existential dimensions of life in Iran today. This book will be a major contribution to the current effort to move away from nationalist views of Iranian history and culture, and as such will be of great interest to scholars of cultural anthropology, history, Middle Eastern studies and Iranian studies.


  • Filename: iran.
  • ISBN: UOM:39015079289388
  • Release Date: 2008
  • Number of pages: 324
  • Author: Hamid Dabashi
  • Publisher: New Press, The

A deeply informed political and cultural narrative of a country thrust into the international spotlight. Praised by leading academics in the field as "extraordinary," "a brilliant analysis," "fresh, provocative and iconoclastic,"Iran: A People Interruptedhas distinguished itself as a major work that has single-handedly effected a revolution in the field of Iranian studies. In this provocative and unprecedented book, Hamid Dabashi—the internationally renowned cultural critic and scholar of Iranian history and Islamic culture—traces the story of Iran over the past two centuries with unparalleled analysis of the key events, cultural trends, and political developments leading up to the collapse of the reform movement and the emergence of the new and combative presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Written in the author's characteristically lively and combative prose,Irancombines "delightful vignettes" (Publishers Weekly) from Dabashi's Iranian childhood and sharp, insightful readings of its contemporary history. In an era of escalating tensions in the Middle East, his defiant moral voice and eloquent account of a national struggle for freedom and democracy against the overwhelming backdrop of U.S. military hegemony fills a crucial gap in our understanding of this country.

Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey

  • Filename: muslim-reformers-in-iran-and-turkey.
  • ISBN: 9780292773639
  • Release Date: 2010-05-01
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Günes Murat Tezcür
  • Publisher: University of Texas Press

Moderation theory describes the process through which radical political actors develop commitments to electoral competition, political pluralism, human rights, and rule of law and come to prefer negotiation, reconciliation, and electoral politics over provocation, confrontation, and contentious action. Revisiting this theory through an examination of two of the most prominent moderate Islamic political forces in recent history, Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey analyzes the gains made and methods implemented by the Reform Front in the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Justice and Development Party in Turkey. Both of these groups represent Muslim reformers who came into continual conflict with unelected adversaries who attempted to block their reformist agendas. Based on extensive field research in both locales, Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey argues that behavioral moderation as practiced by these groups may actually inhibit democratic progress. Political scientist Güneş Murat Tezcür observes that the ability to implement conciliatory tactics, organize electoral parties, and make political compromises impeded democracy when pursued by the Reform Front and the Justice and Development Party. Challenging conventional wisdom, Tezcür's findings have broad implications for the dynamics of democratic progress.

Modernism Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

  • Filename: modernism-oxford-bibliographies-online-research-guide.
  • ISBN: 0199804052
  • Release Date: 2010-05-01
  • Number of pages: 16
  • Author: Oxford University Press
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of Islamic studies find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In Islamic studies, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Islamic Studies, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of the Islamic religion and Muslim cultures. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit


  • Filename: iran.
  • ISBN: 9781437918816
  • Release Date: 2010-01
  • Number of pages: 65
  • Author: Kenneth Katzman
  • Publisher: DIANE Publishing

Pres. Obama shares the goals of the previous Admin. to contain Iran¿s strategic capabilities and regional influence, but he has formulated approaches that differ from those of its predecessor ¿ i.e. through expanded direct diplomatic engagement with Iran. Contents of this report: (1) Political History; (2) The Supreme Leader, His Powers, and Other Ruling Councils; The Pres: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad; (3) Human Rights and Dissent; (4) Iran¿s Strategic Capabilities and Weapons of Mass Destruction; (5) Foreign Policy and Support for Terrorist Groups; (6) Policy During the Clinton and George Bush Admin.; Overview of Obama Admin. Policy; Containment and Possible Mil. Action; Regime Change; Further International and Multilateral Sanctions; U.S. Sanctions.

Bazaar and State in Iran

  • Filename: bazaar-and-state-in-iran.
  • ISBN: 9781139464321
  • Release Date: 2007-04-12
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Arang Keshavarzian
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

The Tehran Bazaar has always been central to the Iranian economy and indeed, to the Iranian urban experience. Arang Keshavarzian's fascinating book compares the economics and politics of the marketplace under the Pahlavis, who sought to undermine it in the drive for modernisation and under the subsequent revolutionary regime, which came to power with a mandate to preserve the bazaar as an 'Islamic' institution. The outcomes of their respective policies were completely at odds with their intentions. Despite the Shah's hostile approach, the bazaar flourished under his rule and maintained its organisational autonomy to such an extent that it played an integral role in the Islamic revolution. Conversely, the Islamic Republic implemented policies that unwittingly transformed the ways in which the bazaar operated, thus undermining its capacity for political mobilisation. Arang Keshavarizian's book affords unusual insights into the politics, economics and society of Iran across four decades.

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