Exposure Analysis

  • Filename: exposure-analysis.
  • ISBN: 9781420012637
  • Release Date: 2006-10-26
  • Number of pages: 533
  • Author: Wayne R. Ott
  • Publisher: CRC Press

Written by experts, Exposure Analysis is the first complete resource in the emerging scientific discipline of exposure analysis. A comprehensive source on the environmental pollutants that affect human health, the book discusses human exposure through pathways including air, food, water, dermal absorption, and, for children, non-food ingestion. The book summarizes existing definitions of exposure, dose, and related concepts and provides the mathematical framework at the heart of these conceptual definitions. Using secondhand smoke as an example, the book illustrates how exposure analysis studies can change human behavior and improve public health. An extensive section on air pollutants considers volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), fine and ultrafine particles, and the latest personal air quality monitors for measuring individual exposure. Another detailed section examines exposures to pesticides, metals such as lead, and dioxin that may occur through multiple routes such as air, food, and dust ingestion. The book explores important aspects of dermal exposure such as the absorption of volatile organic compounds while showering or bathing and exposure through multiple carrier media. The authors describe quantitative methods that have been validated for predicting the concentrations in enclosed everyday locations, such as automobiles and rooms of the home. They also discuss existing laws and examine the relationship between exposure and national policies. Defining the new field of exposure analysis, this book provides the basic tools needed to identify sources, understand causes, measure exposures, and develop strategies for improving public health.

Modern Derivatives Pricing and Credit Exposure Analysis

  • Filename: modern-derivatives-pricing-and-credit-exposure-analysis.
  • ISBN: 9781137494849
  • Release Date: 2015-11-15
  • Number of pages: 466
  • Author: Roland Lichters
  • Publisher: Springer

This book provides a comprehensive guide for modern derivatives pricing and credit analysis. Written to provide sound theoretical detail but practical implication, it provides readers with everything they need to know to price modern financial derivatives and analyze the credit exposure of a financial instrument in today's markets.

Measuring the Impact of Geocoding Error in a Health Exposure Analysis A Case Study Utilizing the Connecticut School based Asthma Surveillance Dataset

  • Filename: measuring-the-impact-of-geocoding-error-in-a-health-exposure-analysis-a-case-study-utilizing-the-connecticut-school-based-asthma-surveillance-dataset.
  • ISBN: 9780549709169
  • Release Date: 2008
  • Number of pages: 70
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

Background. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool to analyze individual exposure to traffic-related air pollution has started to increase in the field of epidemiology, with a primary focus on how to properly classify exposure groupings, and what is the best marker to characterize exposure. Other studies have investigated the affect geocoding can have on spatial accuracy with some attention being paid to analyzing the amount of positional error when using different geocoding address databases. To a lesser extent researchers have started to explain the need to establish a "gold standard" for locating addresses, such as using GPS, aerial orthophotography and in some cases parcel shapefiles. Most geocoding positional error studies that have used a gold standard to verify a geocoded location have used small cohorts and only reported on the amount of error, or missassigned exposure points. This study adds to a growing body of research on determining the amount of positional error when geocoding by conducting a proximity to major roadway exposure analysis, where Connecticut (CT) school locations are geocoded using two address databases (Census TIGERline & StreetMap USA) and comparing them against a True Ground Location (TGL) established using aerial orthophotography. This study will then expand upon this research by analyzing the affect positional error can have on results of a health study by comparing the ORs of the schools assigned to exposure groupings using TIGER to geocode their location versus the TGL.

Methods in Exposure Analysis for Vulnerable Subpopulations

  • Filename: methods-in-exposure-analysis-for-vulnerable-subpopulations.
  • ISBN: 0549579656
  • Release Date: 2008
  • Number of pages: 196
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

Background. Exposures of vulnerable subpopulations are important environmental justice issues. Exposures may be underestimated in conventional risk assessments because unique activity patterns introducing chemical hazards are not incorporated into standard exposure analysis methods. This study develops customized exposure analysis methods for vulnerable subpopulations.

Analysis of an Exposure of the Viola Group in the Arbuckle Mountains Southern Oklahoma

  • Filename: analysis-of-an-exposure-of-the-viola-group-in-the-arbuckle-mountains-southern-oklahoma.
  • ISBN: 9780549647836
  • Release Date: 2008
  • Number of pages: 362
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

The Ordovician Viola Formation outcrops extensively in the Arbuckle Mts of Oklahoma. The Viola is well exposed on I-35, particularly on the southern limb of the Arbuckle anticline. Based on their petrographic characteristics, ten intervals have been recognized in this exposure. In ascending order lithologies consist of poorly washed biosparites with variable peloids and intraclasts, a phosphatic-pyritic hardground, organic carbon rich shale, fossiliferous micrites and dismicrites, packed sparites, sandy sparites, and grainstones. Ternary petrographic plots of the Viola have been used to delineate compositional fields for the different intervals. Previous work has suggested that a shallowing upward trend controlled facies development during the entirety of the deposition of the Viola. This work demonstrates that, while an overall shallowing upward motif is present, detailed facies analysis indicates that several minor fluctuations in water depth took place during deposition of the Formation.

Analysis of the Exposure Levels and Potential Biologic Effects of the PAVE PAWS Radar System

  • Filename: analysis-of-the-exposure-levels-and-potential-biologic-effects-of-the-pave-paws-radar-system.
  • ISBN: NAP:15521
  • Release Date: 1979
  • Number of pages: 102
  • Author:
  • Publisher: National Academies

The Panel on the Extent of Radiation from the PAVE PAWS Radar System was charged to examine the extent of radiation and the exposure of the public to radiation from the PAVE PAWS system. In carrying out this task, the Panel has considered the characteristics of the PAVE PAWS radiation as related to public exposure and compared the possible exposure to existing ambient radiofrequency radiation on Cape Cod and in other locations in the United States. To provide perspective for the assessment of possible exposure effects the Panel has also, to the extent possible, reviewed and summarized the state of knowledge concerning the biologic effects of exposure to such radiation. The Panel did not address the question of the desirability or adequacy of the anticipated exposure control procedures, nor did it make a judgment concerning the relative safety or hazard of exposure to PAVE PAWS emission.

Toxicogenomic Analysis of Hepatic Gene Expression Following Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants

  • Filename: toxicogenomic-analysis-of-hepatic-gene-expression-following-exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants.
  • ISBN: 9780549347316
  • Release Date: 2007
  • Number of pages: 291
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) represent an array of environmental contaminants with have been linked to numerous adverse biological effects, have long half-lives and have the capacity for long range transport. The four POPs, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and 2,2',4,4',5,5',-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), were examined by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) during a series of two-year cancer bioassays to evaluate the toxic and carcinogenic effects of these compounds. Significant increases in the incidence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were observed in the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats chronically exposed to TCDD, PCB126 and a binary mixture of PCB126 and PCB153. PeCDF caused significant increases in numerous non-neoplastic lesions but no neoplastic lesions and single exposure to PCB153 primarily induced the formation of liver hypertrophy. The toxic effects of compounds such as TCDD and PCB126 are believed to be the primary result of binding and activation of the cytosolic transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. The studies presented in this dissertation discuss the toxicogenomic analysis of hepatic gene expression conducted in an effort to identify gene expression changes that may be contributing to the liver pathology observed by the NTP with chronic exposure to TCDD and related compounds.

The Psychological Effects of Death Exposure A Regression Analysis of Risks Associated with Mortuary Services

  • Filename: the-psychological-effects-of-death-exposure-a-regression-analysis-of-risks-associated-with-mortuary-services.
  • ISBN: 9780542806094
  • Release Date: 2006
  • Number of pages: 130
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

Results indicated that funeral directors experience increased symptoms for which stigma and grief coping skills produced predictive value. From this information it might be concluded that the funeral direction profession is a critical stress occupation, for which individuals are subjected to trauma as a normal part of their work. Secondary, reactions to traumatic events may include being stigmatized by traumatic events or else burdened by grief reactions that are common to the profession.

Parametric Analysis of Presession Exposure to Edible and Nonedible Stimuli

  • Filename: parametric-analysis-of-presession-exposure-to-edible-and-nonedible-stimuli.
  • ISBN: 9780549879534
  • Release Date: 2008
  • Number of pages: 71
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

I conducted a parametric evaluation of presession exposure to edible and nonedible reinforcers in order to determine the effects of "small," "medium," and "large" periods of presession access on response rates during sessions immediately following these periods. For 2 participants, presession access to edible and nonedible reinforcers for "small," "medium," and "large" durations decreased the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. For the remaining 2 participants, presession access to edible and nonedible reinforcers either maintained or increased the reinforcing efficacy of those stimuli. The results suggest that presession access to edible or nonedible reinforcers has idiosyncratic effects across individuals. Additionally, the results suggest that minimal differences exist between rates of responding after "small," "medium," and "large" periods of presession access, using the values assessed in the current study.

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Socioeconomic Exposure to Assess Flood Policy Effectiveness

  • Filename: spatiotemporal-analysis-of-socioeconomic-exposure-to-assess-flood-policy-effectiveness.
  • ISBN: 9780549134015
  • Release Date: 2007
  • Number of pages: 195
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ProQuest

After nearly a century of flood policies in the U.S., losses have continued to increase. This thesis examined the potential increase in losses related to the 100-yr floodplain, which is the minimum standard for implementing policies. Despite this core role, as much as 1.5 vertical meters of uncertainty exists when delineating the boundray. However, no uncertainty is provided on flood maps, which could result in increased socioeconomic exposure adjacent to the boundary when a larger flood occurs.

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