Evolution in Health and Disease

  • Filename: evolution-in-health-and-disease.
  • ISBN: 0199207461
  • Release Date: 2007-11-22
  • Number of pages: 398
  • Author: Stephen C. Stearns
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford



A fully revised edition of a volume written by the world's leading authorities on this subject. It discusses how the evolution of humans and their pathogens have generated important medical issues, covering both infectious and degenerative diseases. It presents important ideas that are not yet sufficiently appreciated in the medical community.

The Story of the Human Body

  • Filename: the-story-of-the-human-body.
  • ISBN: 0307379418
  • Release Date: 2013
  • Number of pages: 460
  • Author: Daniel Lieberman
  • Publisher: Pantheon Books



Examines the key adaptations to the body, discusses how these changes have been both beneficial and harmful, and proposes that many chronic illnesses persist because only the symptoms are being treated.

Epigenetics in Health and Disease

  • Filename: epigenetics-in-health-and-disease.
  • ISBN: 9780132599511
  • Release Date: 2012-05-22
  • Number of pages: 608
  • Author: Igor Kovalchuk
  • Publisher: FT Press



This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and easy-to-understand introduction to modern epigenetics. Authored by two active researchers in the field, it introduces key concepts one step at a time, enabling students at all levels to benefit from it. The authors begin by presenting a historical overview that places epigenetics in context, and makes it clear that the field is not (as some presume) completely new. Next, they introduce and explain key epigenetic mechanisms, and discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, organism development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interaction of individual organisms with their environments. Coverage includes: non-coding RNAs in each kingdom; allelic interactions; CRYSPR; gene silencing; epigenetics of germline and epigenetic memory; epigenetic regulation of genome stability and plant stress response; and much more. The authors conclude by offering significant new insights into how knowledge of epigenetics and epigenomics may promote the development of technologies and solutions in areas ranging from behavioral neuroscience to cancer treatment, toxicology to the development of hardier crops.

HLA in Health and Disease

  • Filename: hla-in-health-and-disease.
  • ISBN: 0124403158
  • Release Date: 2000
  • Number of pages: 472
  • Author: Robert Lechler
  • Publisher:



This comprehensive and definitive work succeeds and expands on the highly successful HLA and Disease published in 1994. This new edition has been updated, redesigned and reorganised into three sections making it an invaluable reference. The introductory section summarises current knowledge on the structure, function, genetics and evolution of the HLA system. It clarifies its complex and ever changing nomenclature and discusses the mechanisms underlying disease associations with HLA alleles. The second section deals with the importance of HLA in the context of different clinical specialities. Individual chapters describe the association between HLA polymorphism and each disease. The final section features chapters on current laboratory practice in histocompatibility and tissue typing. HLA in Health and Disease is essential reading for basic and clinical researchers working in immunology and immunogenetics, transplantation medicine and autoimmunity. It will also be of interest to anyone in the fields of rheumatology, diabetology, nephrology, allergy, dermatology, neurology, endocrinology, cancer biology, respiratory medicine, haematology, molecular biology and biochemistry. Key Features * Structure, function and genetics of HLA * HLA nomenclature * Evolution of HLA polymorphisms * HLA associations in arthritis and rheumatology, renal disease, neurology, diabetes and endocrinology, gastroenterology, respiratory disease, ophthalmology, infections, dermatology and psychiatry * HLA and organ transplantation * Serological and PCR-based methods in HLA typing * Cellular techniques in testing histocompatibility * Edited and written by an international panel of experts in the field

Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

  • Filename: principles-of-evolutionary-medicine.
  • ISBN: 9780199663927
  • Release Date: 2016-03-17
  • Number of pages: 400
  • Author: Alan Beedle
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press



Evolutionary science is critical to an understanding of integrated human biology and is increasingly recognised as a core discipline by medical and public health professionals. Advances in the field of genomics, epigenetics, developmental biology, and epidemiology have led to the growing realisation that incorporating evolutionary thinking is essential for medicine to achieve its full potential. This revised and updated second edition of the first comprehensive textbook of evolutionary medicine explains the principles of evolutionary biology from a medical perspective and focuses on how medicine and public health might utilise evolutionary thinking. It is written to be accessible to a broad range of readers, whether or not they have had formal exposure to evolutionary science. The general structure of the second edition remains unchanged, with the initial six chapters providing a summary of the evolutionary theory relevant to understanding human health and disease, using examples specifically relevant to medicine. The second part of the book describes the application of evolutionary principles to understanding particular aspects of human medicine: in addition to updated chapters on reproduction, metabolism, and behaviour, there is an expanded chapter on our coexistence with micro-organisms and an entirely new chapter on cancer. The two parts are bridged by a chapter that details pathways by which evolutionary processes affect disease risk and symptoms, and how hypotheses in evolutionary medicine can be tested. The final two chapters of the volume are considerably expanded; they illustrate the application of evolutionary biology to medicine and public health, and consider the ethical and societal issues of an evolutionary perspective. A number of new clinical examples and historical illustrations are included. This second edition of a novel and popular textbook provides an updated resource for doctors and other health professionals, medical students and biomedical scientists, as well as anthropologists interested in human health, to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary processes underlying human health and disease.

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease

  • Filename: environmental-epigenomics-in-health-and-disease.
  • ISBN: 9783642233807
  • Release Date: 2013-05-16
  • Number of pages: 302
  • Author: Randy L Jirtle
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media



There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.

The Evolution of the Human Head

  • Filename: the-evolution-of-the-human-head.
  • ISBN: 9780674046368
  • Release Date: 2011-01
  • Number of pages: 756
  • Author: Daniel Lieberman
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press



Dan Lieberman has written an innovative, exhaustively researched and carefully argued book dealing with the evolution of the human head. In it he addresses three interrelated questions. First, why does the human head look the way it does? Second, why did these transformations occur? And third, how is something as complex and vital as the head so variable and evolvable? This book addresses these questions in three sections. The first set of chapters review how human and ape heads grow, both in terms of individual parts (organs and regions) and as an integrated whole. The second section reviews how the head performs its major functions: housing the brain, chewing, swallowing, breathing, vocalizing, thermoregulating, seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and balancing during locomotion. The final set of chapters review the fossil evidence for major transformations of the head during human evolution from the divergence of the human and ape lineages through the origins of Homo sapiens. These chapters use developmental and functional insights from the first two sections to speculate on the developmental and selective bases for these transformations.

The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease

  • Filename: the-impact-of-early-life-trauma-on-health-and-disease.
  • ISBN: 9781139489485
  • Release Date: 2010-08-05
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Ruth A. Lanius
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press



There is now ample evidence from the preclinical and clinical fields that early life trauma has both dramatic and long-lasting effects on neurobiological systems and functions that are involved in different forms of psychopathology as well as on health in general. To date, a comprehensive review of the recent research on the effects of early and later life trauma is lacking. This book fills an obvious gap in academic and clinical literature by providing reviews which summarize and synthesize these findings. Topics considered and discussed include the possible biological and neuropsychological effects of trauma at different epochs and their effect on health. This book will be essential reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, mental health professionals, social workers, pediatricians and specialists in child development.

Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

  • Filename: principles-of-evolutionary-medicine.
  • ISBN: 9780199663934
  • Release Date: 2016-03-03
  • Number of pages: 400
  • Author: Peter Gluckman
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press



Evolutionary science is critical to an understanding of integrated human biology and is increasingly recognised as a core discipline by medical and public health professionals. Advances in the field of genomics, epigenetics, developmental biology, and epidemiology have led to the growing realisation that incorporating evolutionary thinking is essential for medicine to achieve its full potential. This revised and updated second edition of the first comprehensive textbook of evolutionary medicine explains the principles of evolutionary biology from a medical perspective and focuses on how medicine and public health might utilise evolutionary thinking. It is written to be accessible to a broad range of readers, whether or not they have had formal exposure to evolutionary science. The general structure of the second edition remains unchanged, with the initial six chapters providing a summary of the evolutionary theory relevant to understanding human health and disease, using examples specifically relevant to medicine. The second part of the book describes the application of evolutionary principles to understanding particular aspects of human medicine: in addition to updated chapters on reproduction, metabolism, and behaviour, there is an expanded chapter on our coexistence with micro-organisms and an entirely new chapter on cancer. The two parts are bridged by a chapter that details pathways by which evolutionary processes affect disease risk and symptoms, and how hypotheses in evolutionary medicine can be tested. The final two chapters of the volume are considerably expanded; they illustrate the application of evolutionary biology to medicine and public health, and consider the ethical and societal issues of an evolutionary perspective. A number of new clinical examples and historical illustrations are included. This second edition of a novel and popular textbook provides an updated resource for doctors and other health professionals, medical students and biomedical scientists, as well as anthropologists interested in human health, to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary processes underlying human health and disease.

Genomic Elements in Health Disease and Evolution

  • Filename: genomic-elements-in-health-disease-and-evolution.
  • ISBN: 9781493930708
  • Release Date: 2015-09-30
  • Number of pages: 315
  • Author: Kyriacos Felekkis
  • Publisher: Springer



Over 98% of the human genome contains non-coding DNA sequences. For many years molecular biologists referred to this component of the genome as the “junk” DNA since it does not code for any “useful” protein product. Over the last years this notion changed significantly as scientists discovered that a large part of this DNA contains various genomic elements that have important roles in cell physiology. Genomic elements such as non-coding RNAs, transposons, splicing RNAs, DNA repeats and others were shown to play a significant role in regulating gene expression. In addition, all these elements were implicated to contribute in the pathogenesis or progression of various human diseases. In this book, the editor will attempt to describe all these genomic elements that constitute the junk DNA of the genome. For every genomic element, the physiologic role in the organism, its role in evolution and any possible involvement in human diseases will be discussed. Additionally, interaction between these elements in normal or pathologic condition will be discussed. Since a large amount of new knowledge is generated daily in regards to these genomic elements, this book will attempt to combine all the information in a single publication that can serve as a reference for future studies. The first part will discuss RNA elements such as microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, piRNAs and splicing RNAs. The second part of the book will deal with transposons, retrotransposons and DNA transposons. Finally the third part of the book will discuss DNA elements that include DNA repeats, conserved non-coding sequences, distal genomic elements, introns, pseudogenes, CpG islands and telomeres. For miRNAs and CNVs a separate chapter will be dedicated to their role in human diseases since an extensive amount of information exists about these two elements.

Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention

  • Filename: coffee-in-health-and-disease-prevention.
  • ISBN: 9780124167162
  • Release Date: 2014-11-12
  • Number of pages: 1080
  • Author: Victor R. Preedy
  • Publisher: Academic Press



Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention presents a comprehensive look at the compounds in coffee, their reported benefits (or toxicity risks) and also explores them on a health-condition specific level, providing researchers and academics with a single-volume resource to help in identifying potential treatment uses. No other book on the market considers all the varieties of coffee in one volume, or takes the disease-focused approach that will assist in directing further research and studies. The book embraces a holistic approach and effectively investigates coffee and its specific compounds from the biochemical to the nutritional well-being of geographical populations. This book represents essential reading for researchers in nutrition, dietetics, food science, biochemistry, and public health. Presents one comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of how coffee plays a role in disease prevention and health Experts in nutrition, diet, and food chemistry (from all areas of academic and medical research) take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Focuses on coffee composition; nutritional aspects of coffee; protective aspects of coffee-related compounds; specific coffee components and their effects on tissue and organ systems Features sections on both the general effects of coffee consumption on the body as well as the effects of specific coffee compounds on specific organ systems

Why We Get Sick

  • Filename: why-we-get-sick.
  • ISBN: 9780307816009
  • Release Date: 2012-02-08
  • Number of pages: 304
  • Author: Randolph M. Nesse
  • Publisher: Vintage



The next time you get sick, consider this before picking up the aspirin: your body may be doing exactly what it's supposed to. In this ground-breaking book, two pioneers of the science of Darwinian medicine argue that illness as well as the factors that predispose us toward it are subject to the same laws of natural selection that otherwise make our bodies such miracles of design. Among the concerns they raise: When may a fever be beneficial? Why do pregnant women get morning sickness? How do certain viruses "manipulate" their hosts into infecting others? What evolutionary factors may be responsible for depression and panic disorder? Deftly summarizing research on disorders ranging from allergies to Alzheimer's, and form cancer to Huntington's chorea, Why We Get Sick, answers these questions and more. The result is a book that will revolutionize our attitudes toward illness and will intrigue and instruct lay person and medical practitioners alike. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Evolutionary Arguments on Aging Disease and other Topicsn Aging

  • Filename: evolutionary-arguments-on-aging-disease-and-other-topicsn-aging.
  • ISBN: 9780978870928
  • Release Date: 2011-05-09
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Giacinto Libertini
  • Publisher: Azinet



Every character of a living being has its function: the teeth are there to chew, the lungs to breathe, the eyes to see, etc. But what is the function of aging, if there even is one?If it is true that the living being is modelled by natural selection, what are the evolutionary needs that bring about limited longevity or variable longevity according to the species? Why does a mouse live less than two years, a tortoise many tens of years and Pinus Aristata not seem to age at all? Are these differences casual or is evolution somehow at the origin of it all, as A. Weismann hypothesized back in the last century?The results are beyond all expectations: it is possible to provide an explanation for the "why of senescence in evolutionary terms.Another important topic is the meaning of disease phenomenon in the context of evolutionary theory. Illness is a set of phenomena that is perfectly anticipated and rationally classifiable by evolutionary theory.This book, printed in Italian in 1983, broached these and other questions with a rigorous evolutionary approach, using mathematical models in its arguments for the graphic expression and the confirmation of the models.

Bacteriophages in Health and Disease

  • Filename: bacteriophages-in-health-and-disease.
  • ISBN: 1845939859
  • Release Date: 2012
  • Number of pages: 296
  • Author: P. Hyman
  • Publisher: CABI



This book, Bacteriophages in health and disease, is an effort to provide an introduction to the breadth of roles that phages play or can play in our everyday lives. To capture this variety of phage roles in human conditions, both natural and applied, the book is divided into three parts. A brief introduction to various concepts and terminology associated with phages is provided in chapter 1. Part I (chapters 2-6) considers the role of phages in the natural state. That is, where phages are, how they contribute directly to disease, the underlying mechanism by which phages do this, and how they can contribute indirectly to disease, that is, to pathogen evolution. Part II (chapters 7-11) considers various phage-based technologies other than the use of whole phages to combat bacterial infections (i.e. besides phage therapy). This includes in particular the use of both modified and 'disembodied' phage parts. Phages thus can serve as carriers and delivery vehicles of DNA and also of other chemicals, including serving as vectors for either gene therapy or DNA vaccines. Part III (chapters 12-17) covers phage-based antibacterial strategies. It includes chapters on: phage translocation, safety and immunomodulation; phage therapy of wounds and related purulent infections; phage therapy of non-wound infections; phage-based enzybiotics; and phage-based control of bacterial pathogens in food. The final chapter of this book is targeted to would-be phage therapy experimentalists, one that considers, in light of phage properties, how phage therapy protocols may be developed in terms of the use of animal models of bacterial disease.

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