Development as Freedom

  • Filename: development-as-freedom.
  • ISBN: 0192893300
  • Release Date: 2001-01-18
  • Number of pages: 366
  • Author: Amartya Sen
  • Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks



Amartya Sen is the most respected and well-known economist of his time. This book is a synthesis of his thought, viewing economic development as a means to extending freedoms rather than an end in itself. By widening his outlook to include poverty, tyranny, lack of opportunity, individual rights, and political structures, Professor Sen gives a stimulating and enlightening overview of the development process. His compassionate yet rigorous analysis will appeal to all those interested in the fate of the developing world, from general reader to specialist.

Development as Freedom

  • Filename: development-as-freedom.
  • ISBN: 9780198297581
  • Release Date: 1999
  • Number of pages: 366
  • Author: Amartya Sen
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA



In Development as Freedom Amartya Sen quotes the eighteenth century poet William Cowper on freedom: Freedom has a thousand charms to show, That slaves howe'er contented, never know. Sen explains how in a world of unprecedented increase in overall opulence, millions of people living in rich and poor countries are still unfree. Even if they are not technically slaves, they are denied elementary freedom and remain imprisoned in one way or another by economic poverty, socialdeprivation, political tyranny or cultural authoritarianism. The main purpose of development is to spread freedom and its 'thousand charms' to the unfree citizens. Freedom, Sen persuasively argues, is at once the ultimate goal of social and economic arrangements and the most efficient means of realizing general welfare. Social institutions like markets, political parties, legislatures, the judiciary, and the media contribute to development by enhancing individual freedom and are in turnsustained by social values. Values, institutions, development, and freedom are all closely interrelated, and Sen links them together in an elegant analytical framework. By asking "What is the relation between our collective economic wealth and our individual ability to live as we would like?" and by incorporating individual freedom as a social commitment into his analysis, Sen allows economics once again, as it did in the time of Adam Smith, to address the social basis of individual well-beingand freedom.

Development as Freedom

  • Filename: development-as-freedom.
  • ISBN: 9780307874290
  • Release Date: 2011-05-25
  • Number of pages: 384
  • Author: Amartya Sen
  • Publisher: Anchor



By the winner of the 1988 Nobel Prize in Economics, an essential and paradigm-altering framework for understanding economic development--for both rich and poor--in the twenty-first century. Freedom, Sen argues, is both the end and most efficient means of sustaining economic life and the key to securing the general welfare of the world's entire population. Releasing the idea of individual freedom from association with any particular historical, intellectual, political, or religious tradition, Sen clearly demonstrates its current applicability and possibilities. In the new global economy, where, despite unprecedented increases in overall opulence, the contemporary world denies elementary freedoms to vast numbers--perhaps even the majority of people--he concludes, it is still possible to practically and optimistically restain a sense of social accountability. Development as Freedom is essential reading.

Development as Freedom in a Digital Age

  • Filename: development-as-freedom-in-a-digital-age.
  • ISBN: 9781464804212
  • Release Date: 2015-04-10
  • Number of pages: 516
  • Author: Björn Sören Gigler
  • Publisher: World Bank Publications



The knowledge of how to use information technology is a critical human capability for a person to realize the various things he/she values doing or being in all dimensions of his/her life. At the center of this process is a person s ability to access, process and act upon information facilitated through the use of new technologies.

Development as Freedom

  • Filename: development-as-freedom.
  • ISBN: 9783640945177
  • Release Date: 2011-06-28
  • Number of pages: 20
  • Author: Henning Müller
  • Publisher: GRIN Verlag



Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject Economics - Economic Cycle and Growth, grade: 1,0, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, language: English, abstract: About 2500 years ago the brilliant Greek philosopher Aristotle surveyed in his Nicomachean Ethics the ends to which our conduct should be directed. He concluded with deep insight that “wealth is obviously not the good we seek, for the sole purpose it serves is to provide the means of getting something else [emphasis added]” (Aristotle, 1975, p. 31). Until recent times, economists struggle for a commonly accepted primary “end” as an overall policy goal. The ideas range from income and wealth maximization (often expressed in the per capita GNP) over “the pursuit of happiness” as an “unalienable right” in the US Declaration of Independence of 1776 to well-known measures of “something else” such as the Gross National Happiness in Bhutan (cf. DiTella and MacCulloch, 2008). Another, indeed very famous, proposal originates from the work of Amartya Sen. He suggests to define freedom as the primary goal for societies and to measure the achievements in the space of feasible functionings, the so-called capability set. In this paper I seek to present Sen’s theoretical conception of development as freedom and to provide both the background for tracing the process of origin as well as some exemplary applications to give an idea of the impact of his vision on economic problems. I will focus on the theoretical structure of his conception and will not go into details regarding empirical and historical data that can easily be found in standard literature on development economics. The theoretical background to Sen’s approach, however, is not that intensively discussed and so my aim is to contribute to the understanding of the theoretical structure of his idea. In the beginning, I will give a brief overview of development as a general conception in economics. Therefore, I will go into areas, goals and a sample of measurements of development. In the second and central section of this paper I will analyze Sen’s idea of development as freedom from a theoretical perspective. In doing so, I will picture the derivation of his idea from welfare economics and then scrutinize different aspects of freedoms in Sen’s thinking that are crucial for a deep understanding of the deductions emanating from his approach. Finally, I will point out three exemplary applications of the conception of development as freedom on important economic problems, namely markets, poverty and democracy.

Development as Freedom

  • Filename: development-as-freedom.
  • ISBN: 9783640734771
  • Release Date: 2010-10-25
  • Number of pages: 8
  • Author: Anna Praz
  • Publisher: GRIN Verlag



Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - Methods, Research, grade: A, Humboldt-University of Berlin, course: International Political Economy, language: English, abstract: When the term development is considered, it is difficult to have a clear dimension to address, as this term illustrates a complex human process, rich in linkages and interrelations, which has been erroneously simplified in the course of time, by various single explanatory variables. Nevertheless, in order to restrict the domain, it might be useful to find a definition of it. The term underdevelopment, strictly related to its positive derivate, was defined by J. de Largentaye as a “weak degree of resource exploitation” 1, resources that can be natural, economic and human. For the author, the main dynamic was to find in the economic development, which is the increase in the amount of people nation's population with sustained growth, from a simple low-income economy, to a modern high-income economy, with the ultimate goal of improving the economic, political, and social well-being of its people2.

Creating Capabilities

  • Filename: creating-capabilities.
  • ISBN: 9780674050549
  • Release Date: 2011
  • Number of pages: 237
  • Author: Martha C. Nussbaum
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press



Argues that a country's development should not be measured by its gross domestic product, but rather by whether most of its people have access to basic education, health care and other opportunities available in more advanced countries. By the author of Cultivating Humanity.

The Idea of Justice

  • Filename: the-idea-of-justice.
  • ISBN: 9780674054578
  • Release Date: 2009-09-30
  • Number of pages: 496
  • Author: Amartya Kumar Sen
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press



Social justice: an ideal, forever beyond our grasp; or one of many practical possibilities? More than a matter of intellectual discourse, the idea of justice plays a real role in how - and how well - people live. And in this book the distinguished scholar Amartya Sen offers a powerful critique of the theory of social justice that, in its grip on social and political thinking, has long left practical realities far behind.

Inequality Reexamined

  • Filename: inequality-reexamined.
  • ISBN: 0674452569
  • Release Date: 1995
  • Number of pages: 207
  • Author: Amartya Sen
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press



In this deft analysis, Amartya Sen argues that the dictum "all men are created equal" serves largely to deflect attention from the fact that we differ in age, gender, talents, physical abilities as well as in material advantages and social background. He argues for concentrating on higher and more basic values: individual capabilities and freedom to achieve objectives.

India

  • Filename: india.
  • ISBN: 0199257493
  • Release Date: 2002
  • Number of pages: 512
  • Author: Jean Drèze
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand



This book explores the role of public action in eliminating deprivation and expanding human freedoms in India. The analysis is based on a broad and integrated view of development, which focuses on well-being and freedom rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. The authors place human agency at the centre of stage, and stress the complementary roles of different institutions (economic, social, and political) in enhancing effective freedoms. In comparative international perspective, the Indian economy has done reasonably well in the period following the economic reforms initiated in the early nineties. However, relatively high aggregate economic growth coexists with the persistence of endemic deprivation and deep social failures. Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen relate this imbalance to the continued neglect, in the post-reform period, of public involvement in crucial fields such as basic education, health care, social security, environmental protection, gender equity, and civil rights, and also to the imposition of new burdens such as the accelerated expansion of military expenditure. Further, the authors link these distortions of public priorities with deep-seated inequalities of social influence and political power. The book discusses the possibility of addressing these biases through more active democratic practice.

The Right to Development as Freedom from Neo colonialism Other Economic Structures and Systems of Exclusion and Exploitation

  • Filename: the-right-to-development-as-freedom-from-neo-colonialism-other-economic-structures-and-systems-of-exclusion-and-exploitation.
  • ISBN: OCLC:809318880
  • Release Date: 2011
  • Number of pages: 758
  • Author: Muhammad Bawa
  • Publisher:



The 1986 Declaration on the Right to Development (DRD) recognizes the right to development as the inalienable human right of every human person and all peoples. It has since failed to mature into treaty form because of polarized views over critical elements such as the right's philosophical coherence, its distinctive content and nature of corresponding obligations, amongst others, between developing and developed countries in the UN right to development discourse aimed at progressing it towards comprehensive realization and treaty form. The DRD is, however, to-date the most authoritative, detailed and authentic expression of the international community on the subject of the right to development as a human right. It has been the reference for attempts at practice. A challenge of persistent divergence of views calls for its interpretation in the light of the objects and purposes with recourse to the context of its adoption, subsequent practice, related agreements, experts' opinions, and preambular statements. A finding of convergence of positions and an informed interpretative outcome is facilitative of turning the DRD into hard law. The considerations of the declared objects affirm the right to development as a freedom from neo-colonialism, and other economic structures and systems of exploitation and exclusion of internal origin. A re-visit of the DRD more concretely specifies infringements, highlights responsive operational preconditions, makes provisions for the involvement of relevant expertise, monitoring, and state reporting illustrated in the case study of Ghana. As an inalienable human right, it portends the protection of the rational autonomy of } individuals and peoples in development to equitable outcomes and fulfilment. The right is, in this sense, philosophically coherent, and implementatble. It should thus mature into a treaty to protect human agency against the predations of neo-colonialism, and other economic structures and systems of exclusion and exploitation of internal origins.

Encountering Development

  • Filename: encountering-development.
  • ISBN: 9781400821464
  • Release Date: 2001-02-15
  • Number of pages: 320
  • Author: Arturo Escobar
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press



How did the industrialized nations of North America and Europe come to be seen as the appropriate models for post-World War II societies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America? How did the postwar discourse on development actually create the so-called Third World? And what will happen when development ideology collapses? To answer these questions, Arturo Escobar shows how development policies became mechanisms of control that were just as pervasive and effective as their colonial counterparts. The development apparatus generated categories powerful enough to shape the thinking even of its occasional critics while poverty and hunger became widespread. "Development" was not even partially "deconstructed" until the 1980s, when new tools for analyzing the representation of social reality were applied to specific "Third World" cases. Here Escobar deploys these new techniques in a provocative analysis of development discourse and practice in general, concluding with a discussion of alternative visions for a postdevelopment era. Escobar emphasizes the role of economists in development discourse--his case study of Colombia demonstrates that the economization of food resulted in ambitious plans, and more hunger. To depict the production of knowledge and power in other development fields, the author shows how peasants, women, and nature became objects of knowledge and targets of power under the "gaze of experts."

On Ethics and Economics

  • Filename: on-ethics-and-economics.
  • ISBN: 0631164014
  • Release Date: 1991-01-08
  • Number of pages: 148
  • Author: Amartya Sen
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell



In this elegant critique, Amartya Sen argues that welfare economics can be enriched by paying more explicit attention to ethics, and that modern ethical studies can also benefit from a closer contact with economies. He argues further that even predictive and descriptive economics can be helped by making more room for welfare-economic considerations in the explanation of behaviour.

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