Democracies at War

  • Filename: democracies-at-war.
  • ISBN: 9781400824458
  • Release Date: 2010-07-01
  • Number of pages: 304
  • Author: Dan Reiter
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press



Why do democracies win wars? This is a critical question in the study of international relations, as a traditional view--expressed most famously by Alexis de Tocqueville--has been that democracies are inferior in crafting foreign policy and fighting wars. In Democracies at War, the first major study of its kind, Dan Reiter and Allan Stam come to a very different conclusion. Democracies tend to win the wars they fight--specifically, about eighty percent of the time. Complementing their wide-ranging case-study analysis, the authors apply innovative statistical tests and new hypotheses. In unusually clear prose, they pinpoint two reasons for democracies' success at war. First, as elected leaders understand that losing a war can spell domestic political backlash, democracies start only those wars they are likely to win. Secondly, the emphasis on individuality within democratic societies means that their soldiers fight with greater initiative and superior leadership. Surprisingly, Reiter and Stam find that it is neither economic muscle nor bandwagoning between democratic powers that enables democracies to win wars. They also show that, given societal consent, democracies are willing to initiate wars of empire or genocide. On the whole, they find, democracies' dependence on public consent makes for more, rather than less, effective foreign policy. Taking a fresh approach to a question that has long merited such a study, this book yields crucial insights on security policy, the causes of war, and the interplay between domestic politics and international relations.

Democracies at War against Terrorism

  • Filename: democracies-at-war-against-terrorism.
  • ISBN: 9780230614727
  • Release Date: 2016-03-28
  • Number of pages: 269
  • Author: S. Cohen
  • Publisher: Springer



Numerous democratic nations have been singled out by NGOs for brutality in their modus operandi, for paying inadequate attention to civilian protection or for torture of prisoners. This book deals with the difficulties faced when conducting asymmetric warfare in populated areas without violating humanitarian law.

Democracies and War

  • Filename: democracies-and-war.
  • ISBN: STANFORD:36105110187411
  • Release Date: 2000
  • Number of pages: 139
  • Author: Felix Knüpling
  • Publisher: Lit Verlag



That democracies do not wage war against each other is now a well-documented pattern in international politics. However, our theoretical understanding of what accounts for this so-called democratic peace is limited. What is so special about democracies that keeps them from fighting fellow democracies, even though they fight wars against (perceived) non-democracies? Knupling contributes to the debate by classifying and synthesising different theoretical explanations for democratic peace at the analytical levels of the state and the international system. He digs deep into the workings of the democratic political system and the orientations of its foreign policy-leaders that culminate in collective action in the international arena. A central theme is that processes of integration -- taking place both within as well as among democracies -- lead to the formation of a common identity. Democracies construct "friends" and "foes", basing their judgment on the way other states resolve their domestic conflicts. Knupling supports his argument with a discussion of conceptual, methodological and epistemological problems of democratic peace.

Democracies at War

  • Filename: democracies-at-war.
  • ISBN: 0691089493
  • Release Date: 2002-02-10
  • Number of pages: 283
  • Author: Dan Reiter
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press



Why do democracies win wars? This is a critical question in the study of international relations, as a traditional view--expressed most famously by Alexis de Tocqueville--has been that democracies are inferior in crafting foreign policy and fighting wars. In Democracies at War, the first major study of its kind, Dan Reiter and Allan Stam come to a very different conclusion. Democracies tend to win the wars they fight--specifically, about eighty percent of the time. Complementing their wide-ranging case-study analysis, the authors apply innovative statistical tests and new hypotheses. In unusually clear prose, they pinpoint two reasons for democracies' success at war. First, as elected leaders understand that losing a war can spell domestic political backlash, democracies start only those wars they are likely to win. Secondly, the emphasis on individuality within democratic societies means that their soldiers fight with greater initiative and superior leadership. Surprisingly, Reiter and Stam find that it is neither economic muscle nor bandwagoning between democratic powers that enables democracies to win wars. They also show that, given societal consent, democracies are willing to initiate wars of empire or genocide. On the whole, they find, democracies' dependence on public consent makes for more, rather than less, effective foreign policy. Taking a fresh approach to a question that has long merited such a study, this book yields crucial insights on security policy, the causes of war, and the interplay between domestic politics and international relations.

Liberal Democracies at War

  • Filename: liberal-democracies-at-war.
  • ISBN: 9781441168719
  • Release Date: 2013-08-01
  • Number of pages: 224
  • Author: Andrew Knapp
  • Publisher: A&C Black



Liberal democracies have always accepted the need to go to war, despite the fact that war can undermine liberal values. Wars may be won or lost, not only on the battlefield, but in the perceptions of the publics who pay for them. Presentation is therefore increasingly important. Starting with the First World War, the first major war fought by liberal democracies after the emergence on mass media, Liberal Democracies at War explores the relationship between representations of liberal violence and the ways in which the liberal state understands 'rights' in war. Experts in the field explore crucial questions such as: · How have the violences of war perpetrated in their names been communicated to publics of liberal democracies? · How have representations of conflict changed over time? · How far have the victims of liberal wars been able to insert their stories into the record?

Never at War

  • Filename: never-at-war.
  • ISBN: 0300082983
  • Release Date: 1998
  • Number of pages: 424
  • Author: Spencer R. Weart
  • Publisher: Yale University Press



This survey of the history of conflict between democracies reveals an important finding: fully democratic nations have never made war on other democracies. Furthermore, historian Spencer R. Weart concludes in this book, they probably never will. Building his argument on some 40 case studies ranging through history from ancient Athens to Renaissance Italy to modern America, the author analyzes every instance in which democracies or regimes like democracies have confronted each other with military force.

How Democracies Lose Small Wars

  • Filename: how-democracies-lose-small-wars.
  • ISBN: 0521008778
  • Release Date: 2003-08-04
  • Number of pages: 295
  • Author: Gil Merom
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press



Gil Merom argues that modern democracies fail in insurgency wars because they are unable to find a winning balance between expedient and moral tolerance for the costs of war. Small wars are lost at home when a critical minority shifts the balancing element from the battlefield to the marketplace of ideas. This minority, representing the educated middle class, abhors the brutality involved in effective counterinsurgency, but also refuses to sustain the level of casualties resulting from fighting in other ways.

Electing to Fight

  • Filename: electing-to-fight.
  • ISBN: 9780262263849
  • Release Date: 2007-01-26
  • Number of pages: 316
  • Author: Edward D. Mansfield
  • Publisher: MIT Press



Does the spread of democracy really contribute to international peace? Successive U. S. administrations have justified various policies intended to promote democracy not only by arguing that democracy is intrinsically good but by pointing to a wide range of research concluding that democracies rarely, if ever, go to war with one another. To promote democracy, the United States has provided economic assistance, political support, and technical advice to emerging democracies in Eastern and Central Europe, and it has attempted to remove undemocratic regimes through political pressure, economic sanctions, and military force. In Electing to Fight, Edward Mansfield and Jack Snyder challenge the widely accepted basis of these policies by arguing that states in the early phases of transitions to democracy are more likely than other states to become involved in war.Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative analysis, Mansfield and Snyder show that emerging democracies with weak political institutions are especially likely to go to war. Leaders of these countries attempt to rally support by invoking external threats and resorting to belligerent, nationalist rhetoric. Mansfield and Snyder point to this pattern in cases ranging from revolutionary France to contemporary Russia. Because the risk of a state's being involved in violent conflict is high until democracy is fully consolidated, Mansfield and Snyder argue, the best way to promote democracy is to begin by building the institutions that democracy requires -- such as the rule of law -- and only then encouraging mass political participation and elections. Readers will find this argument particularly relevant to prevailing concerns about the transitional government in Iraq. Electing to Fight also calls into question the wisdom of urging early elections elsewhere in the Islamic world and in China.

Cultures at War

  • Filename: cultures-at-war.
  • ISBN: UOM:39015059989833
  • Release Date: 2003-01-01
  • Number of pages: 302
  • Author: T. Alexander Smith
  • Publisher: University of Toronto Press



"This book marries rigorous scholarship with riveting examples of morality policy.... The role of values, ethics, and competing moral visions in public policy has long needed treatment of this scope and clarity." - Leslie A. Pal, Carleton University

Democracies and War

  • Filename: democracies-and-war.
  • ISBN: 3825839745
  • Release Date: 1999
  • Number of pages: 126
  • Author: Felix Knupling
  • Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster



That democracies do not wage war against each other is now a well-documented pattern of international politics. However, our theoretical knowledge of this so-called democratic peace is limited. We do not know what impedes democracies from fighting fellow democracies, even though they fight wars against (perceived) non-democracies. This volume contributes to the debate by way of classifying and synthesising different theoretical accounts of democratic peace at the analytical level of the state and the international system. It digs deep into the workings of the democratic political system and the orientations of its foreign policy leaders which culminate in collective action on the international arena. A central theme is that processes of integration - taking place both within as well as among democracies - lead to the formation of a common identity. Democracies construe their "friends" and "foes", basing their judgment on the way other states resolve their domestic conflicts. This argument is supported by a discussion of conceptual, methodological and epistemological problems of democratic peace. The volume concludes with a presentation of policy recommendations and a short summary in German.

Democracies and the Shock of War

  • Filename: democracies-and-the-shock-of-war.
  • ISBN: 9781317153191
  • Release Date: 2016-05-13
  • Number of pages: 320
  • Author: Marc Cogen
  • Publisher: Routledge



Over the course of the twentieth century, democracies demonstrated an uncanny ability to win wars when their survival was at stake. As this book makes clear, this success cannot be explained merely by superior military equipment or a particular geographical advantage. Instead, it is argued that the legal frameworks imbedded in democratic societies offered them a fundamental advantage over their more politically restricted rivals. For democracies fight wars aided by codes of behaviour shaped by their laws, customs and treaties that reflect the wider values of their society. This means that voters and the public can influence the decision to wage and sustain war. Thus, a precarious balance between government, parliament and military leadership is the backbone of any democracy at war, and the key to success or failure. Beginning with the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century writings of Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius, this book traces the rise of legal concepts of war between states. It argues that the ideas and theories set out by the likes of Gentili and Grotius were to provide the bedrock of western democratic thinking in wartime. The book then moves on to look in detail at the two World Wars of the twentieth century and how legal thinking adapted itself to the realities of industrial and total war. In particular it focuses upon the impact of differing political ideologies on the conduct of war, and how combatant nations were frequently forced to challenge core beliefs and values in order to win. Through a combination of history and legal philosophy, this book contributes to a better understanding of democratic government when it is most severely tested at war. The ideas and concepts addressed will resonate, both with those studying the past, and current events.

Liberal Peace Liberal War

  • Filename: liberal-peace-liberal-war.
  • ISBN: 0801486904
  • Release Date: 2000
  • Number of pages: 264
  • Author: John M. Owen
  • Publisher: Cornell University Press



Liberal democracies very rarely fight wars against each other, even though they go to war just as often as other types of states do. John M. Owen IV attributes this peculiar restraint to a synergy between liberal ideology and the institutions that exist within these states. Liberal elites identify their interests with those of their counterparts in foreign states, Owen contends. Free discussion and regular competitive elections allow the agitations of the elites in liberal democracies to shape foreign policy, especially during crises, by influencing governmental decision makers. Several previous analysts have offered theories to explain liberal peace, but they have not examined the state. This book explores the chain of events linking peace with democracies. Owen emphasizes that peace is constructed by democratic ideas, and should be understood as a strong tendency built upon historically contingent perceptions and institutions. He tests his theory against ten cases drawn from over a century of U.S. diplomatic history, beginning with the Jay Treaty in 1794 and ending with the Spanish-American War in 1898. A world full of liberal democracies would not necessarily be peaceful. Were illiberal states to disappear, Owen asserts, liberal states would have difficulty identifying one another, and would have less reason to remain at peace.

Democracy and War

  • Filename: democracy-and-war.
  • ISBN: 1588260763
  • Release Date: 2002-01-01
  • Number of pages: 191
  • Author: Errol Anthony Henderson
  • Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers



Errol Henderson critically examines what has been called the closest thing to an empirical law in world politics, the concept of the democratic peace. Henderson tests two versions of the democratic peace proposition (DPP) - that democracies rarely if ever fight one another, and that democracies are more peaceful in general than nondemocracies - using exactly the same data and statistical techniques as their proponents. In effect hoisting the thesis on its own petard, he finds that the ostensible democratic peace has in fact been the result of a confluence of several processes during the post-World War II era. It seems clear, Henderson maintains, that the presence of democracy is hardly a guarantor of peace - and under certain conditions, it may even increase the probability of war. Henderson convincingly refutes the democratic peace proposition - using exactly the same data and techniques as its proponents.

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