- Filename: copper-wire-bonding.
- ISBN: 9781461457619
- Release Date: 2013-09-20
- Number of pages: 235
- Author: Preeti S Chauhan
- Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks. Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material. However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties. Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation. In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed. The book also discusses best practices and recommendations on the bond process, bond–pad metallurgies, and appropriate reliability tests for copper wire-bonded electronic components. In summary, this book: Introduces copper wire bonding technologies Presents copper wire bonding processes Discusses copper wire bonding metallurgies Covers recent advancements in copper wire bonding including the bonding process, equipment changes, bond–pad materials and surface finishes Covers the reliability tests and concerns Covers the current implementation of copper wire bonding in the electronics industry Features 120 figures and tables Copper Wire Bonding is an essential reference for industry professionals seeking detailed information on all facets of copper wire bonding technology.
- Filename: wire-bonding-in-microelectronics.
- ISBN: 9780071642651
- Release Date: 2009-06-05
- Number of pages: 336
- Author: George Harman
- Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
The Industry Standard Guide to Wire Bonding--Fully Updated The definitive resource on the critical process of connecting semiconductors with their packages, Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fifine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extremetemperature wire bonds Copper, low-dielectric-constant (Cu/Lo-k) technology and problems Wire bonding process modeling and simulation CD includes all the book's full-color figures plus animations
- Filename: semiconductor-packaging.
- ISBN: 9781439862070
- Release Date: 2016-04-19
- Number of pages: 216
- Author: Andrea Chen
- Publisher: CRC Press
In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing—package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how the properties of packaging materials interact with each another and explore how to maximize the performance of these materials in regard to package integrity and reliability. By tying together the disparate elements essential to a semiconductor package, this easy-to-read book shows how all the parts fit and work together to provide durable protection for the integrated circuit chip within as well as a means for the chip to communicate with the outside world.
- Filename: through-silicon-vias-for-3d-integration.
- ISBN: 9780071785150
- Release Date: 2012-08-05
- Number of pages: 512
- Author: John Lau
- Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
A comprehensive guide to TSV and other enabling technologies for 3D integration Written by an expert with more than 30 years of experience in the electronics industry, Through-Silicon Vias for 3D Integration provides cutting-edge information on TSV, wafer thinning, thin-wafer handling, microbumping and assembly, and thermal management technologies. Applications to highperformance, high-density, low-power-consumption, wide-bandwidth, and small-form-factor electronic products are discussed. This book offers a timely summary of progress in all aspects of this fascinating field for professionals active in 3D integration research and development, those who wish to master 3D integration problem-solving methods, and anyone in need of a low-power, wide-bandwidth design and high-yield manufacturing process for interconnect systems. Coverage includes: Nanotechnology and 3D integration for the semiconductor industry TSV etching, dielectric-, barrier-, and seed-layer deposition, Cu plating, CMP, and Cu revealing TSVs: mechanical, thermal, and electrical behaviors Thin-wafer strength measurement Wafer thinning and thin-wafer handling Microbumping, assembly, and reliability Microbump electromigration Transient liquid-phase bonding: C2C, C2W, and W2W 2.5D IC integration with interposers 3D IC integration with interposers Thermal management of 3D IC integration 3D IC packaging
- Filename: materials-for-electrical-and-electronic-contacts.
- ISBN: 1578082692
- Release Date: 2004
- Number of pages: 407
- Author: Dr. P. B. Joshi
- Publisher: Science Pub Incorporated
The subject of electrical contact materials is of interdisciplinary nature, demanding knowledge of pure sciences such as physics and chemistry, and applied sciences like electrical and electronics engineering, metallurgical engineering and materials science, polymer science and engineering, ceramic science and engineering, over and above the knowledge of environmental aspects particularly when dealing with disposal of products. The aim of this book is to provide state of the art information on materials, and processing and applications of electrical and electronic contacts. The book will introduce the academic community to the subject of electrical and electronic materials. For the industrial users, it is a comprehensive source of information on manufacturing, evaluation and applications of electrical and electronic contact materials. The book would be of immense utility to scientists, engineers and technocrats engaged in the field of switchgear technology, integrated circuits and microelectronics.
- Filename: mechanical-behavior-of-materials-and-structures-in-microelectronics.
- ISBN: 1558991204
- Release Date: 1991
- Number of pages: 454
- Author: Ephraim Suhir
The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.
- Filename: materials-reliability-issues-in-microelectronics.
- ISBN: 1558991190
- Release Date: 1991-10-22
- Number of pages: 354
- Author: James R. Lloyd
- Publisher: Materials Research Society
With the increased complexity of modern integrated circuits, it is important that reliability problems be attacked properly with the appropriate tools. This volume recognizes that almost all reliability problems are materials problems, and helps to put 'reliabilty physics' on a firm scientific foundation. Topics include: electromigration; stress effects on reliability; stress and packaging; metallization; device, oxide and dielectric reliability; new investigative techniques; corrosion.