Capitalism and the Jews

  • Filename: capitalism-and-the-jews.
  • ISBN: 9781400834365
  • Release Date: 2010-01-04
  • Number of pages: 280
  • Author: Jerry Z. Muller
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press



The unique historical relationship between capitalism and the Jews is crucial to understanding modern European and Jewish history. But the subject has been addressed less often by mainstream historians than by anti-Semites or apologists. In this book Jerry Muller, a leading historian of capitalism, separates myth from reality to explain why the Jewish experience with capitalism has been so important and complex--and so ambivalent. Drawing on economic, social, political, and intellectual history from medieval Europe through contemporary America and Israel, Capitalism and the Jews examines the ways in which thinking about capitalism and thinking about the Jews have gone hand in hand in European thought, and why anticapitalism and anti-Semitism have frequently been linked. The book explains why Jews have tended to be disproportionately successful in capitalist societies, but also why Jews have numbered among the fiercest anticapitalists and Communists. The book shows how the ancient idea that money was unproductive led from the stigmatization of usury and the Jews to the stigmatization of finance and, ultimately, in Marxism, the stigmatization of capitalism itself. Finally, the book traces how the traditional status of the Jews as a diasporic merchant minority both encouraged their economic success and made them particularly vulnerable to the ethnic nationalism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Providing a fresh look at an important but frequently misunderstood subject, Capitalism and the Jews will interest anyone who wants to understand the Jewish role in the development of capitalism, the role of capitalism in the modern fate of the Jews, or the ways in which the story of capitalism and the Jews has affected the history of Europe and beyond, from the medieval period to our own.

Capitalism and the Jews

  • Filename: capitalism-and-the-jews.
  • ISBN: 0691144788
  • Release Date: 2010-01-24
  • Number of pages: 272
  • Author: Jerry Z. Muller
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press



The unique historical relationship between capitalism and the Jews is crucial to understanding modern European and Jewish history. But the subject has been addressed less often by mainstream historians than by anti-Semites or apologists. In this book Jerry Muller, a leading historian of capitalism, separates myth from reality to explain why the Jewish experience with capitalism has been so important and complex--and so ambivalent. Drawing on economic, social, political, and intellectual history from medieval Europe through contemporary America and Israel, Capitalism and the Jews examines the ways in which thinking about capitalism and thinking about the Jews have gone hand in hand in European thought, and why anticapitalism and anti-Semitism have frequently been linked. The book explains why Jews have tended to be disproportionately successful in capitalist societies, but also why Jews have numbered among the fiercest anticapitalists and Communists. The book shows how the ancient idea that money was unproductive led from the stigmatization of usury and the Jews to the stigmatization of finance and, ultimately, in Marxism, the stigmatization of capitalism itself. Finally, the book traces how the traditional status of the Jews as a diasporic merchant minority both encouraged their economic success and made them particularly vulnerable to the ethnic nationalism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Providing a fresh look at an important but frequently misunderstood subject, Capitalism and the Jews will interest anyone who wants to understand the Jewish role in the development of capitalism, the role of capitalism in the modern fate of the Jews, or the ways in which the story of capitalism and the Jews has affected the history of Europe and beyond, from the medieval period to our own.

The Jews and Modern Capitalism

  • Filename: the-jews-and-modern-capitalism.
  • ISBN: 1412826926
  • Release Date: 1951
  • Number of pages: 402
  • Author: Werner Sombart
  • Publisher: Transaction Publishers



Since its first appearance in Germany in 1911, Jews and Modern Capitalism has provoked vehement criticism. As Samuel Z. Klausner emphasizes, the lasting value of Sombart's work rests not in his results-most of which have long since been disproved-but in his point of departure. Openly acknowledging his debt to Max Weber, Sombart set out to prove the double thesis of the Jewish foundation of capitalism and the capitalist foundation of Judaism. Klausner, placing Sombart's work in its historical and societal context, examines the weaknesses and strengths of Jews and Modern Capitalism.

Chosen Capital

  • Filename: chosen-capital.
  • ISBN: 0813553075
  • Release Date: 2012
  • Number of pages: 311
  • Author: Rebecca Kobrin
  • Publisher:



At what moments and in what ways did Jews play a central role in American capitalism? Chosen Capital addresses this question head-on by exploring Jews' impact on American capitalism as both its architects—through their participation in specific industries—and as its most vocal critics through their support of unionism and radical political movements. Essays are contributed by a stellar list of scholars.

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

  • Filename: the-protestant-ethic-and-the-spirit-of-capitalism.
  • ISBN: 048642703X
  • Release Date: 2003
  • Number of pages: 292
  • Author: Max Weber
  • Publisher: Courier Corporation



The Protestant ethic — a moral code stressing hard work, rigorous self-discipline, and the organization of one's life in the service of God — was made famous by sociologist and political economist Max Weber. In this brilliant study (his best-known and most controversial), he opposes the Marxist concept of dialectical materialism and its view that change takes place through "the struggle of opposites." Instead, he relates the rise of a capitalist economy to the Puritan determination to work out anxiety over salvation or damnation by performing good deeds — an effort that ultimately discouraged belief in predestination and encouraged capitalism. Weber's classic study has long been required reading in college and advanced high school social studies classrooms.

A Troublesome Inheritance

  • Filename: a-troublesome-inheritance.
  • ISBN: 9780698163799
  • Release Date: 2014-05-06
  • Number of pages: 288
  • Author: Nicholas Wade
  • Publisher: Penguin



Drawing on startling new evidence from the mapping of the genome, an explosive new account of the genetic basis of race and its role in the human story Fewer ideas have been more toxic or harmful than the idea of the biological reality of race, and with it the idea that humans of different races are biologically different from one another. For this understandable reason, the idea has been banished from polite academic conversation. Arguing that race is more than just a social construct can get a scholar run out of town, or at least off campus, on a rail. Human evolution, the consensus view insists, ended in prehistory. Inconveniently, as Nicholas Wade argues in A Troublesome Inheritance, the consensus view cannot be right. And in fact, we know that populations have changed in the past few thousand years—to be lactose tolerant, for example, and to survive at high altitudes. Race is not a bright-line distinction; by definition it means that the more human populations are kept apart, the more they evolve their own distinct traits under the selective pressure known as Darwinian evolution. For many thousands of years, most human populations stayed where they were and grew distinct, not just in outward appearance but in deeper senses as well. Wade, the longtime journalist covering genetic advances for The New York Times, draws widely on the work of scientists who have made crucial breakthroughs in establishing the reality of recent human evolution. The most provocative claims in this book involve the genetic basis of human social habits. What we might call middle-class social traits—thrift, docility, nonviolence—have been slowly but surely inculcated genetically within agrarian societies, Wade argues. These “values” obviously had a strong cultural component, but Wade points to evidence that agrarian societies evolved away from hunter-gatherer societies in some crucial respects. Also controversial are his findings regarding the genetic basis of traits we associate with intelligence, such as literacy and numeracy, in certain ethnic populations, including the Chinese and Ashkenazi Jews. Wade believes deeply in the fundamental equality of all human peoples. He also believes that science is best served by pursuing the truth without fear, and if his mission to arrive at a coherent summa of what the new genetic science does and does not tell us about race and human history leads straight into a minefield, then so be it. This will not be the last word on the subject, but it will begin a powerful and overdue conversation. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Jews Confucians and Protestants

  • Filename: jews-confucians-and-protestants.
  • ISBN: 9781442219632
  • Release Date: 2013
  • Number of pages: 221
  • Author: Lawrence E. Harrison
  • Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield



In Jews, Confucians, and Protestants: Cultural Capital and the End of Multiculturalism, Lawrence E. Harrison takes the politically incorrect stand that not all cultures are created equally. Analyzing the performance of 117 countries, grouped by predominant religion, Harrison argues for the superiority of those cultures that emphasize Jewish, Confucian, or Protestant values.

A World Without Jews

  • Filename: a-world-without-jews.
  • ISBN: 9780806537573
  • Release Date: 1959-04-21
  • Number of pages: 64
  • Author: Dagobert D. Runes
  • Publisher: Kensington Publishing Corp.



A World Without Jews by Karl Marx speaks about religious prejudice specifically against Jews. It begs to question can the world survive without this prejudice and how Jews beg for political emancipation? Karl Marx (1818-1883) is best known not as a philosopher but as a revolutionary communist, whose works inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century. It is hard to think of many who have had as much influence in the creation of the modern world. Trained as a philosopher, Marx turned away from philosophy in his mid-twenties, towards economics and politics. However, in addition to his overtly philosophical early work, his later writings have many points of contact with contemporary philosophical debates, especially in the philosophy of history and the social sciences, and in moral and political philosophy. Historical materialism — Marx's theory of history — is centered around the idea that forms of society rise and fall as they further and then impede the development of human productive power. Marx sees the historical process as proceeding through a necessary series of modes of production, culminating in communism. Marx's economic analysis of capitalism is based on his version of the labour theory of value, and includes the analysis of capitalist profit as the extraction of surplus value from the exploited proletariat. The analysis of history and economics come together in Marx's prediction of the inevitable economic breakdown of capitalism, to be replaced by communism. However Marx refused to speculate in detail about the nature of communism, arguing that it would arise through historical processes, and was not the realisation of a pre-determined moral ideal.

Essential Outsiders

  • Filename: essential-outsiders.
  • ISBN: 0295976136
  • Release Date: 1997-01-01
  • Number of pages: 335
  • Author: Daniel Chirot
  • Publisher: University of Washington Press



Ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia, like Jews in Central Europe until the Holocaust, have been remarkably successful as an entrepreneurial and professional minority. Whole regimes have sometimes relied on the financial underpinnings of Chinese business to maintain themselves in power, and recently Chinese businesses have led the drive to economic modernization in Southeast Asia. But at the same time, they remain, as the Jews were, the quintessential “outsiders.” In some Southeast Asian countries they are targets of majority nationalist prejudices and suffer from discrimination, even when they are formally integrated into the nation.

The Mind and the Market

  • Filename: the-mind-and-the-market.
  • ISBN: 0307428990
  • Release Date: 2007-12-18
  • Number of pages: 512
  • Author: Jerry Z. Muller
  • Publisher: Anchor



Capitalism has never been a subject for economists alone. Philosophers, politicians, poets and social scientists have debated the cultural, moral, and political effects of capitalism for centuries, and their claims have been many and diverse. The Mind and the Market is a remarkable history of how the idea of capitalism has developed in Western thought. Ranging across an ideological spectrum that includes Hobbes, Voltaire, Adam Smith, Edmund Burke, Hegel, Marx, and Matthew Arnold, as well as twentieth-century communist, fascist, and neoliberal intellectuals, historian Jerry Muller examines a fascinating thread of ideas about the ramifications of capitalism and its future implications. This is an engaging and accessible history of ideas that reverberate throughout everyday life. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Jews Without Money

  • Filename: jews-without-money.
  • ISBN: 1412812712
  • Release Date: 2009-12
  • Number of pages: 264
  • Author: Michael Gold
  • Publisher: Transaction Pub Large Print



This landmark work presaged the so-called literature of the proletarian thirties, and is the quintessential novel of poor Jews. Michael Gold's Jews Without Money tells the story of Jewish poverty in one ghetto, that of New York. The same story could have been told in hundreds of other ghettoes scattered all over the world, especially in Europe, prior to the rise of Nazism. The book went through fifteen printings upon its publication in 1930 and was translated into every major language in the western world. The appearance of the book at this time is ironic as well as timely. In his introduction to the 1935 printing, Gold himself offers the reason why: "It has become necessary now in America to fight against fascist lies. Recently, groups of anti-Semitic demagogies have appeared in this country. They are like Hitler, telling the hungry American people that capitalism is Jewish and that an attack on the Jews is the best way of restoring prosperity. What folly. What criminal deception and bloody fraud. And there are signs that this oldest of swindles will grow in America." Sixty years after this utterance one can say that Gold was indeed prophetic. But the politics of the age--this or any other--dissolve in the face of a brilliant set of vignettes about growing up on the Lower East Side during the heyday of Jewish life there in the 1920s. Here we find a world of struggle--Jews against Gentiles, Jews against each other, a universe of gangsters and rabbis, men and women, children and adults--all told in the first person vernacular of a boy growing to manhood dedicated to making clear his love of a long-suffering mother. The races and religions may differ, but the themes are universal.

Jews and Money

  • Filename: jews-and-money.
  • ISBN: 0230112250
  • Release Date: 2010-11-09
  • Number of pages: 256
  • Author: Abraham H. Foxman
  • Publisher: Macmillan



In the wake of Bernie Madoff's ruinous investment schemes, Abe Foxman takes a cultural and political look at the many variations throughout history of the assumptions made about Jews and money. These include Jews as greedy global capitalists; Jews as wealthy secret communists; Jews as cheapskates; and Jews controlling the media with their money to unduly influence society. Foxman makes the case that these stereotypes have permeated cultures globally and argues that these beliefs are rooted in deep-seated and pervasive anti-Semitism. As with all forms of bigotry, society at large needs to respond to the persistence of stereotypes by educating the young, denouncing hate speech, and by encouraging Jews, like all groups, to express pride in their ethnic and religious heritage.

The Richest Man Who Ever Lived

  • Filename: the-richest-man-who-ever-lived.
  • ISBN: 9781451688573
  • Release Date: 2015-08-04
  • Number of pages: 304
  • Author: Greg Steinmetz
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster



“A colorful introduction to one of the most influential businessmen in history” (The New York Times Book Review), Jacob Fugger—the Renaissance banker “who wrote the playbook for everyone who keeps score with money” (Bryan Burrough, author of Days of Rage). In the days when Columbus sailed the ocean and Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa, a German banker named Jacob Fugger became the richest man in history. Fugger lived in Germany at the turn of the sixteenth century, the grandson of a peasant. By the time he died, his fortune amounted to nearly two percent of European GDP. In an era when kings had unlimited power, Fugger dared to stare down heads of state and ask them to pay back their loans—with interest. It was this coolness and self-assurance, along with his inexhaustible ambition, that made him not only the richest man ever, but a force of history as well. Before Fugger came along it was illegal under church law to charge interest on loans, but he got the Pope to change that. He also helped trigger the Reformation and likely funded Magellan’s circumnavigation of the globe. His creation of a news service gave him an information edge over his rivals and customers and earned Fugger a footnote in the history of journalism. And he took Austria’s Habsburg family from being second-tier sovereigns to rulers of the first empire where the sun never set. “Enjoyable…readable and fast-paced” (The Wall Street Journal), The Richest Man Who Ever Lived is more than a tale about the most influential businessman of all time. It is a story about palace intrigue, knights in battle, family tragedy and triumph, and a violent clash between the one percent and everybody else. “The tale of Fugger’s aspiration, ruthlessness, and greed is riveting” (The Economist).

Anti Judaism The Western Tradition

  • Filename: anti-judaism-the-western-tradition.
  • ISBN: 9780393239430
  • Release Date: 2013-02-04
  • Number of pages: 624
  • Author: David Nirenberg
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company



“Exhilarating . . . a scholarly tour de force. The story Nirenberg has to tell is not over.”—Adam Kirsch, Tablet This incisive history upends the complacency that confines anti-Judaism to the ideological extremes in the Western tradition. With deep learning and elegance, David Nirenberg shows how foundational anti-Judaism is to the history of the West. Questions of how we are Jewish and, more critically, how and why we are not have been churning within the Western imagination throughout its history. Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans; Christians and Muslims of every period; even the secularists of modernity have used Judaism in constructing their visions of the world. The thrust of this tradition construes Judaism as an opposition, a danger often from within, to be criticized, attacked, and eliminated. The intersections of these ideas with the world of power—the Roman destruction of the Second Temple, the Spanish Inquisition, the German Holocaust—are well known. The ways of thought underlying these tragedies can be found at the very foundation of Western history.

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